Abstract

Left-handed materials have superlensing effects that enable them to surmount the optical diffraction limit. A photonic crystal is able to mimic some properties of all-angle left-landed materials. In this study, the all-angle negative refraction criteria of photonic crystals are evaluated. The MIT Photonic-Bands program is employed to calculate the band structure of walled honeycomb photonic crystals, and the finite-difference time-domain method is used to provide a snapshot of the electric field distribution inside and outside the honeycomb photonic crystals. The results indicate that the all-angle negative refraction phenomena of the honeycomb photonic crystals are correlated with the orientation of the photonic crystals. Furthermore, the role of the uncoupled modes varies based on their orientation to the all-angle negative refraction photonic crystals, in one case assisting negative refraction and in the other case preventing it. The results suggest that symmetric properties should not be ignored when considering the negative refraction of photonic crystals.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-I. Weng and G. Y. Guo, “Band structure of honeycomb photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

X. Wang, Z. F. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Unrestricted superlensing in a triangular two dimensional photonic crystal,” Opt. Express 12, 2919-2924 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Kuo and Z. Ye, “Optical transmission of photonic crystal structures formed by dielectric cylinders: evidence for non-negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Guiding optical flows by photonic crystal slabs made of dielectric cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

R. L. Chern, C. C. Chang, and R. R. Hwang, “Large full band gaps for photonic crystals in two dimensions computed by an inverse method with multigrid acceleration,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).

2000 (4)

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Sakoda, “Optical transmittance of a two-dimensional triangular photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 4672-4675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7982-7986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell's equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, Y.

Y. Aoyama and J. Nakano, RS/6000 SP: Practical MPI Programming (IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization, 1999), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/.

Arjavalingam, G.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bader, D. A.

M. F. Su, D. A. Bader, I. El-Kady, and S.-Y. Lin, “A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization,” in Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 373-379.

Berenger, J.-P.

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brommer, K. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

R. L. Chern, C. C. Chang, and R. R. Hwang, “Large full band gaps for photonic crystals in two dimensions computed by an inverse method with multigrid acceleration,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-S.

L.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Guiding optical flows by photonic crystal slabs made of dielectric cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chern, R. L.

R. L. Chern, C. C. Chang, and R. R. Hwang, “Large full band gaps for photonic crystals in two dimensions computed by an inverse method with multigrid acceleration,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H.-T.

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

El-Kady, I.

M. F. Su, D. A. Bader, I. El-Kady, and S.-Y. Lin, “A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization,” in Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 373-379.

Foteinopoulou, S.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gajic, R.

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G. Y.

T.-I. Weng and G. Y. Guo, “Band structure of honeycomb photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, R. R.

R. L. Chern, C. C. Chang, and R. R. Hwang, “Large full band gaps for photonic crystals in two dimensions computed by an inverse method with multigrid acceleration,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

John, S.

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, K.

Kuchar, F.

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-H.

L.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Guiding optical flows by photonic crystal slabs made of dielectric cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Kuo and Z. Ye, “Optical transmission of photonic crystal structures formed by dielectric cylinders: evidence for non-negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leung, K. M.

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.-L.

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

M. F. Su, D. A. Bader, I. El-Kady, and S.-Y. Lin, “A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization,” in Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 373-379.

Liu, Y. F.

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. T.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martínez, A.

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Meisels, R.

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Míguez, H.

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moussa, R.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, J.

Y. Aoyama and J. Nakano, RS/6000 SP: Practical MPI Programming (IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization, 1999), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, M. J.

M. J. Quinn, Parallel Programming in C with MPI and OpenMP (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Rappe, A. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reed, E. J.

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ren, Z. F.

Robertson, W. M.

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakoda, K.

K. Sakoda, “Optical transmittance of a two-dimensional triangular photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 4672-4675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7982-7986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).

Satpathy, S.

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell's equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, M. F.

M. F. Su, D. A. Bader, I. El-Kady, and S.-Y. Lin, “A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization,” in Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 373-379.

Sullivan, D. M.

D. M. Sullivan, Electrodynamics Simulation Using The FDTD Method (IEEE, 2000).

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics--The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

Tang, H.-T.

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Weng, T.-I.

T.-I. Weng and G. Y. Guo, “Band structure of honeycomb photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
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Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals-Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

Ye, Z.

C.-H. Kuo and Z. Ye, “Optical transmission of photonic crystal structures formed by dielectric cylinders: evidence for non-negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Guiding optical flows by photonic crystal slabs made of dielectric cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals-Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

Zhang, L.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell's equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T.-I. Weng and G. Y. Guo, “Band structure of honeycomb photonic crystal slabs,” J. Appl. Phys. 99, 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J.-P. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, “Photonic crystals: imaging by flat lens using negative refraction,” Nature 426, 404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (10)

H.-T. Chien, H.-T. Tang, C.-H. Kuo, C.-C. Chen, and Z. Ye, “Directed diffraction without negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 113101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, “Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, “All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z.-Y. Li and L.-L. Lin, “Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and left-handed behavior in two-dimensional photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 235107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 085106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Gajić, R. Meisels, F. Kuchar, and K. Hingerl, “All-angle left-handed negative refraction in Kagomé and honeycomb lattice photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 165310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, “Optical transmittance of a two-dimensional triangular photonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 4672-4675 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakoda, “Symmetry, degeneracy, and uncoupled modes in two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 7982-7986 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, H. Míguez, A. Griol, and J. Martí, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the self-focusing of light by a photonic crystal lens,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 165119 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

R. L. Chern, C. C. Chang, and R. R. Hwang, “Large full band gaps for photonic crystals in two dimensions computed by an inverse method with multigrid acceleration,” Phys. Rev. E 68, 026704 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L.-S. Chen, C.-H. Kuo, and Z. Ye, “Guiding optical flows by photonic crystal slabs made of dielectric cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 066612 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Kuo and Z. Ye, “Optical transmission of photonic crystal structures formed by dielectric cylinders: evidence for non-negative refraction,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based superlens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. John, “Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, M. Ibanescu, E. J. Reed, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Doppler radiation emitted by an oscillating dipole moving inside a photonic band-gap crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043903 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in a two-dimensional periodic dielectric array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023-2026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646-2649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell's equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650-2653 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152-3155 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton U. Press, 1995).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals-Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley Interscience, 2003).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics--The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).

D. M. Sullivan, Electrodynamics Simulation Using The FDTD Method (IEEE, 2000).

M. F. Su, D. A. Bader, I. El-Kady, and S.-Y. Lin, “A novel FDTD application featuring OpenMP-MPI hybrid parallelization,” in Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on Parallel Processing (IEEE, 2004), pp. 373-379.

Y. Aoyama and J. Nakano, RS/6000 SP: Practical MPI Programming (IBM Corporation, International Technical Support Organization, 1999), http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/.

M. J. Quinn, Parallel Programming in C with MPI and OpenMP (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

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