Abstract

Detailed numerical and experimental studies of propagation of 110fs laser pulses at 800nm in small-core photonic crystal fibers (γ100W1km1) reveal that pulse breakup occurs in two distinct regimes defined by the input power. At low peak power (soliton order N7) higher-order soliton fission occurs: individual solitons being ejected from the input pulse one after the other and are arranged in wavelength and in time by peak power. At higher levels of peak power (N>8), pulse breakup results in ejection of bound soliton pairs and the formation of single solitons that collide during propagation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding: errata,” Opt. Lett. 22, 484-485 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11, 659-661 (1986).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

2005 (1)

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (3)

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938-1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Y. Kodama and A. Hasegawa, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a monomode dielectric guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 510-524 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear optical pulses in dispersive dielectric fibers. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 142-144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Atkin, D. M.

Beaud, P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938-1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bekki, N.

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Chi, S.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16, 3644-3651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Eggleton, B. J.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and B. J. Eggleton, “Harnessing and control of optical rogue waves in supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 16, 3644-3651 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Gordon, J. P.

J. P. Gordon, “Theory of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11, 662-664 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grudinin, A. B.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Hasegawa, A.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, and N. Bekki, “Fission of optical solitons induced by stimulated Raman effect,” Opt. Lett. 13, 392-394 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kodama and A. Hasegawa, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a monomode dielectric guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 510-524 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear optical pulses in dispersive dielectric fibers. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 142-144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann and A. Nazarkin, “Soliton self-frequency shift for pulses with a duration less than the period of molecular oscillations,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2065-2067 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hodel, W.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938-1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N. Y.

Khaidarov, D. V.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Knight, J. C.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 9844-9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Spectral smooth supercontinuum from 350 nmto3 mm in sub-centimeter length of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding: errata,” Opt. Lett. 22, 484-485 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, Y.

Y. Kodama and A. Hasegawa, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in a monomode dielectric guide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 510-524 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korobkin, D. V.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Kumar, V. V. R. K.

Lin, Q.

Luan, F.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 9844-9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11, 659-661 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nazarkin, A.

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

Podlipensky, A.

Poulton, C. G.

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Ranka, J. K.

Ross, M.

Russell, P. St. J.

A. Podlipensky, P. Szarniak, N. Y. Joly, C. G. Poulton, and P. St. J. Russell, “Bound soliton pairs in photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 1653-1662 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Spectral smooth supercontinuum from 350 nmto3 mm in sub-centimeter length of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic-crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding: errata,” Opt. Lett. 22, 484-485 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serkin, V. N.

A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, D. V. Korobkin, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, and D. V. Khaidarov, “Decay of femtosecond pulses in single-mode optical-fibers,” JETP Lett. 46, 221-225 (1987).

Skryabin, D. V.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 9844-9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301, 1705-1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond pulse narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Szarniak, P.

Tai, K.

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear optical pulses in dispersive dielectric fibers. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 142-144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonics crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938-1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, M. R.

Wen, S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wolchover, N. A.

Yulin, A. V.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 9844-9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. St. J. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zysset, B.

P. Beaud, W. Hodel, B. Zysset, and H. P. Weber, “Ultrashort pulse propagation, pulse breakup, and fundamental soliton formation in a single-mode optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1938-1946 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear optical pulses in dispersive dielectric fibers. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 142-144 (1973).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured GVD curve of the small-core PCF used in our experiments. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) is at 707 nm and the pump wavelength is in anomalous GVD region. The inset shows the SEM of the fiber cross section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal (left column) and spectral (right column) evolution of the launched pulses for peak powers of (a), (b) 2.78, (c), (d) 4.52, and (e), (f) 4.8 kW .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup: ISO, optical isolator; M1, M2, M3 mirrors; A, attenuator; λ 2 , half-wave-plate; T : 1 2 , telescope with magnification 0.5; FM1 and FM2, flip mirrors; PM, power meter; O1, O2, objectives; PCF, highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber; PBS, polarization beam splitter; FROG; SH frequency resolved optical gating system; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power dependence of the spectra obtained experimentally (left column) and numerically (right column) at the end of the fiber with (a), (b) 2.1, (c), (d) 4.2, and (e), (f) 18.5 cm lengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

FROG spectrograms measured at (a) 10, (b) 40, (c) 80, and (d) 120 mW in 2.1 cm long fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FROG spectrograms measured at (a) 10, (b) 40, (c) 80, and (d) 120 mW in a 4.5 cm long fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FROG spectrograms measured at (a) 4, (b) 35, (c) 90, and (d) 115 mW in an 18 cm long fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Dispersion Coefficients at 800 nm Wavelength

Equations (8)

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P j = P 0 ( 2 N 2 j + 1 ) 2 N 2 , 1 j N ,
T j = T 0 ( 2 N 2 j + 1 ) , 1 j N ,
A ( z , τ ) z = n 2 i n + 1 β n n ! n A ( τ , z ) τ n α 2 A ( τ , z ) + i γ ( 1 + i ω 0 τ ) ( A ( z , τ ) R ( t ) A ( z , τ t ) 2 d t ) .
R ( τ ) = ( 1 f R ) δ ( τ ) + f R h R ( τ ) ,
h R ( t ) = R a ( t ) + R b ( t ) = ( f a + f c ) h a ( t ) + f b h b ( t )
R a ( t ) = f a h a ( t ) , R b ( t ) = f a h a ( t ) + f b h b ( t ) ,
h a ( t ) = τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 exp ( t τ 2 ) sin ( t τ 1 ) ,
h b ( t ) = [ ( 2 τ b t ) τ b 2 ] exp ( t τ b ) .

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