Abstract

We transferred the frequency of an ultrastable laser over 86km of urban fiber. The link is composed of two cascaded 43km fibers connecting two laboratories, Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais-Systèmes de Référence Temps-Espace (LNE-SYRTE) and Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers (LPL), in the Paris area. In an effort to realistically demonstrate a link of 172km without using spooled fiber extensions, we implemented a recirculation loop to double the length of the urban fiber link. The link is fed with a 1542nm cavity-stabilized fiber laser having a sub-Hz linewidth. The fiber-induced phase noise is measured and cancelled with an all fiber-based interferometer using commercial off-the-shelf pigtailed telecommunication components. The compensated link shows an Allan deviation of a few 1016 at one second and a few 1019 at 10,000  seconds.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. See, for instance, S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physics constants, looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
    [PubMed]
  14. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Harald Schnatz, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalle 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany (personal communication, 2008).
  17. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
    [CrossRef]
  19. L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.
  22. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, “A modified 'Allan variance' with increased oscillator characterization ability,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470-475.
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

See, for instance, S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physics constants, looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1986 (1)

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Abgrall, M.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Achkar, J.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, “A modified 'Allan variance' with increased oscillator characterization ability,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470-475.
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Barber, Z. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, J. A.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, “A modified 'Allan variance' with increased oscillator characterization ability,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470-475.
[CrossRef]

Bauch, A.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, K. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergquist, J. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Blatt, S.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, M. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brusch, A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cacciapuoti, L.

L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calonico, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, G. K.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambon, D.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, Ch.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Chi, A. R.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Chicireanu, R.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. W.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Crane, S.

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Cutler, L. S.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dach, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daussy, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawkins, S.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Miranda, M. H. G.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dimarcq, N.

L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Guillemot, P.

E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
[CrossRef]

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Healey, D. J.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hlavac, R.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hume, D. B.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

Karshenboim, S. G.

See, for instance, S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physics constants, looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kéfélian, F.

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, M. S.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leeson, D. B.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lemke, N. D.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemonde, P.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Lorini, L.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luiten, A.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

Magalhaes, D. Varela

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandache, C.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Mandelberg, H. I.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marion, H.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, M. J.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGrath, P. A.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mcgunigal, T. E.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

Mullen, J. A.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Narbonneau, F.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, R.

Oates, C. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oskay, W. H.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, T.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petit, G.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Piester, D.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poli, N.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, L. E.

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rosenband, T.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbusch, P.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samain, E.

E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

Schmidt, P. O.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Schnatz, Harald

Harald Schnatz, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalle 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany (personal communication, 2008).

Smith, W. L.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Stalnaker, J.

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalnaker, J. E.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284-1293 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3056-3058 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sydnor, R. L.

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Szymaniec, K.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, J. W.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobar, M.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhrich, P.

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vian, C.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vrancken, P.

E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weick, J.

E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
[CrossRef]

Williams, P. A.

Wineland, D. J.

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, P. Jungner, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Delivering the same optical frequency at two places: accurate cancellation of phase noise introduced by an optical fiber or other time-varying path,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1777-1779 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, Jun

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zelevinsky, T.

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

See, for instance, S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physics constants, looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83, 767-811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48, 35-41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. E. Richter, H. I. Mandelberg, M. S. Kruger, and P. A. McGrath, “Linewidth determination from self-heterodyne measurements with subcoherence delay times,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 2070-2074 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

J. A. Barnes, A. R. Chi, L. S. Cutler, D. J. Healey, D. B. Leeson, T. E. Mcgunigal, J. A. Mullen Jr., W. L. Smith, and R. L. Sydnor, “Characterization of frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 20, 105-120 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. Vian, P. Rosenbusch, H. Marion, S. Bize, L. Cacciapuoti, S. Zhang, M. Abgrall, D. Chambon, I. Maksimovic, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, “BNM-SYRTE fountains: recent results,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 54, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 918-925 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Metrologia (1)

A. Bauch, J. Achkar, S. Bize, D. Calonico, R. Dach, R. Hlavac, L. Lorini, T. Parker, G. Petit, D. Piester, K. Szymaniec, and P. Uhrich, “Comparison between frequency standards in Europe and the USA at the 10−15 uncertainty level,” Metrologia 43, 109-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Phys. B (1)

L. Cacciapuoti, N. Dimarcq, and C. Salomon, “Atomic clock ensemble in space: scientific objectives and mission status,” Nucl. Phys. B 166, 303-306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, and J. Ye, “Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10−17,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221-230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, and C. Chardonnet, “High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

A. D. Ludlow, T. Zelevinsky, G. K. Campbell, S. Blatt, M. M. Boyd, M. H. G. de Miranda, M. J. Martin, J. W. Thomsen, S. M. Foreman, Jun Ye, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, Y. Le Coq, Z. W. Barber, N. Poli, N. D. Lemke, K. M. Beck, and C. W. Oates, “Sr lattice clock at 1×10−16 fractional uncertainty by remote optical evaluation with a Ca clock,” Science 319, 1805-1808 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rosenband, D. B. Hume, P. O. Schmidt, C. W. Chou, A. Brusch, L. Lorini, W. H. Oskay, R. E. Drullinger, T. M. Fortier, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and J. C. Bergquist, “Frequency ratio of Al+ and Hg+ single-ion optical clocks; metrology at the 17th decimal place,” Science 319, 1808-1812 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

E. Samain, P. Vrancken, J. Weick, and P. Guillemot, “T2L2 flight model metrological performances,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 21st European Frequency and Time Forum (IEEE, 2007) pp. 1291-1294.
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, B. Lipphardt, H. Schnatz, G. Santarelli, P. Lemonde, S. Bize, M. Lours, F. Narbonneau, A. Clairon, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, and Ch. Chardonnet, “Transmission of an optical carrier frequency over a telecommunication fiber link,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CMKK1.
[PubMed]

Harald Schnatz, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalle 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany (personal communication, 2008).

J. Millo, S. Dawkins, R. Chicireanu, D. Varela Magalhaes, C. Mandache, D. Holleville, M. Lours, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable optical cavities: design and experiments at LNE-SYRTE,” in Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 110-114.
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, A. Amy-Klein, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “Progress to a full optical link on a telecom network,” Presented at the 22nd European Frequency and Time Forum, Toulouse, France, 23-25 April 2008.

D. W. Allan and J. A. Barnes, “A modified 'Allan variance' with increased oscillator characterization ability,” in Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 1981), pp. 470-475.
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase noise power spectral density versus Fourier frequency of the stabilized laser (dotted curve) and of a 1 - Hz linewidth white frequency noise laser (dashed line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Full scheme of the optical frequency transfer over fiber; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; PD, photodiode; PLL, phase-locked loop; PC, polarization controller, OC, optical circulator; RF synth, radio-frequency synthesizer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase noise power spectral density of (a) the free-running link, (b) compensated 86 km link, and (c) delayed self-heterodyne beat note. Dashed line represents the phase noise of a 1 - Hz linewidth laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fiber noise rejection for 86 km link, experimental data (jagged curve) and analytical data with proportional gain equal to 2300 and integrator gain equal to 50 (dashed curve). Dotted line represents the delay-induced rejection floor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fractional frequency instability of the 86 km free-running link (triangles) and compensated link (squares) versus averaging time. The measurement frequency bandwidth is 10 Hz .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scheme of the 172 km link (EDFA, see text; AOM, PD, see Fig. 2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase noise power spectral density of (a) the free-running link and (b) the compensated 172 km link.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fractional frequency instability of the 172 km free running link (triangle), compensated link with 10 Hz measurement bandwidth (squares), and with Λ type counter (stars). Empty triangles correspond to the experimental setup floor (see text).

Metrics