Abstract

We present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of liquid crystal (LC) molecules’ reorientation on the electromagnetic behaviors of S-type left-handed metamaterials (LHMs) by considering an isotropic and anisotropic approach, respectively. It is shown that the frequency shift of the magnetic resonance as a function of the LC molecules’ reorientation is reversed with a blue shift for the isotropic case and a red shift for the anisotropic one, the latter being in agreement with experiment. For the electric plasma frequency shift, a large quantitative difference is pointed out by the two approaches, although the frequency variation trend is similar. The fact that the scattered electric field is no longer polarized like the incident beam explains these differences, resulting in the unsuitability of an isotropic treatment of LC compounds infiltrated into metamaterials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  5. H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level,” Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, Q. H. Fu, J. Zhao, Y. Yang, and X. P. Zhao, “Negative permeability and subwavelength focusing of quasi-periodic dendritic cell metamaterials,” Opt. Express 14, 7188-7197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index in the optical and terahertz,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2592-2594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid-crystal variable phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2041-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission studies of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 033401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Best, P.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chaubet, M.

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clark, N. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decoopman, T.

T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

Diaz, A.

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Q. H.

Gaillot, D. P.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graugnard, E.

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houzet, G.

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huangfu, J.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jain, S.

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jakoby, R.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

K. Busch and S. John, “Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials: the tunable electromagnetic vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 967-970 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index in the optical and terahertz,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2592-2594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystal: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, 1995).

Khoo, I.-C.

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, J. S.

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, D.-H.

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lackner, A. M.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lheurette, E.

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, D. H. Werner, X. Liang, A. Diaz, and B. Weiner, “Nanosphere dispersed liquid crystals for tunable negative-zero-positive index in the optical and terahertz,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2592-2594 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, K. C.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippens, D.

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, G.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maclennan, J. E.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margerum, J. D.

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission studies of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 033401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

Müller, St.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid-crystal variable phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2041-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheele, P.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

D. H. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Liquid crystal clad near-infrared metamaterials with tunable negative-zero-positive refractive indices,” Opt. Express 15, 3342-3347 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R.

R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimoda, Y.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, “Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level,” Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction,” Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Markos and C. M. Soukoulis, “Transmission studies of left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B 65, 033401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Summers, C. J.

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-R.

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanbesien, O.

T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, “The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of ε and μ,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, “Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weil, C.

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, B.

Werner, D. H.

Wu, B.-I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, “Robust method to retrieve the constitutive effective parameters of metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid-crystal variable phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2041-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Yoshino, K.

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

D. Kang, J. E. Maclennan, N. A. Clark, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, “Electro-optic behavior of liquid-crystal-filled silica opal photonic crystals: effect of liquid-crystal alignment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4052-4055 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Ran, J. Huangfu, H. Chen, Y. Li, X. Zhang, K. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Microwave solid-state left-handed material with a broad bandwidth and an ultralow loss,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 073102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Left-handed materials composed of only S-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 057604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang-Williams, Y.

E. Graugnard, J. S. King, S. Jain, C. J. Summers, Y. Zhang-Williams, and I. C. Khoo, “Electric-field tuning of the Bragg peak in large-pore TiO2 inverse shell opals,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 233105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Q.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. P.

Zhou, J.

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Zide, J. M. O.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

H. Chen, L. Ran, J. Huangfu, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Negative refraction of a combined double S-shaped metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151909 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huangfu, L. Ran, H. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, and J. A. Kong, “Experimental confirmation of negative refractive index of a metamaterial composed of Ω-like metallic patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1537-1539 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimoda, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electric field tuning of a stop band in a reflection spectrum of synthetic opal infiltrated with nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3627-3629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lim, J. D. Margerum, and A. M. Lackner, “Liquid crystal millimeter wave electronic phase shifter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1065-1067 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C.-Y. Chen, T.-R. Tsai, C.-L. Pan, and R.-P. Pan, “Room temperature terahertz phase shifter based on magnetically controlled in liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4497-4499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Yang and J. R. Sambles, “Microwave liquid-crystal variable phase grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2041-2043 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, D.-H. Kwon, D. H. Werner, I.-C. Khoo, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Tunable optical negative-index metamaterials employing anisotropic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, L. Kang, D. P. Gaillot, X. Zhao, J. Zhou, and D. Lippens, “Magnetic control of negative permeability metamaterials based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Kang, B. Du, B. Li, J. Zhou, H. Tang, X. Liang, and B. Zhang, “Electrically tunable negative permeability metamaterials based on nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Chen, L. Ran, Y. Luo, B. W., and J. A. Kong, “Experimental characterization and cell interactions of a two-dimensional isotropic left-handed metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 084108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Weil, St. Müller, P. Scheele, P. Best, G. Lüssem, and R. Jakoby, “Highly-anisotropic liquid-crystal mixtures for tunable microwave devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1732-1734 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

T. Decoopman, O. Vanbesien, and D. Lippens, “Demonstration of a backward wave in a single split ring resonator and wire loaded finline,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 14, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Zhang, G. Houzet, E. Lheurette, D. Lippens, M. Chaubet, and X. Zhao, “Negative-zero-positive metamaterial with omega-type metal inclusions,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084312 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (3)

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Phys. Rev. B (4)

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Phys. Rev. E (2)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tunable metamaterial based on anisotropic LC in the microwave frequency. (a) 3D view and (b) Side view of the basic unit cell and the schematic of LC director reorientation. The geometrical parameters of the unit cell are as follows: l 1 = 3.0 , l 2 = 2.15 , w = 0.4 , t Rogers   Duroid = 0.8 , t LC = 0.8 , p = 5.0 (unit: millimeter). Rogers RT/Duroid 5880 ( ε r = 2.2 , tan δ = 0.0004 ) was chosen as the host medium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The dependence of the real part of the effective permeability μ of the metamaterial on the director angle of LC obtained from (a) isotropic and (b) anisotropic treatments. Inset: the magnetic resonance frequency ω m as a function of the reorientation angle of LC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Surface currents (a) and electric field distribution (b) for metamaterials incorporating LC with a director angle of 0° at magnetic resonance frequency ( 8.20 GHz ) obtained under an isotropic treatment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric field distribution in different magnetic resonators at frequencies corresponding to a negative permeability. (a) Single SRR with the gap parallel to the incident electric field. (b) Single SRR with the gap perpendicular to the incident electric field. (c) Double SRR. (d) Short wire pair. In all cases, the electric fields in the x z plane are shown, which have been normalized by the respective maximum values. The incident beam is illuminated with its electric field polarized along the x axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The dependence of the real part of the effective permittivity ε of the metamaterial to the LC reorientation obtained from (a) an isotropic and (b) an anisotropic treatment. Inset: the plasma frequency ω p as a function of the reorientation angle of LC.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Surface currents (a) and electric field distribution (b) for metamaterial incorporating LC with a director angle of 0° at plasma frequency of 14.9 GHz , which is predicted with an isotropic treatment.

Equations (2)

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n eff = n e n 0 n e 2 sin 2 θ + n 0 2 cos 2 θ ,
ε = ε ε ε sin 2 θ + ε cos 2 θ .

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