Abstract

We have measured the optical properties of 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazolium 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate (DSTMS), a highly nonlinear organic crystal, in the terahertz (THz) spectral range. The conditions for efficient THz pulse generation through optical rectification of near-infrared pulses have been calculated and confirmed experimentally. The results show that DSTMS as a source of THz radiation is superior to 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST), a well-investigated nonlinear material with one of the highest nonlinear susceptibilities known so far.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of THz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Y. Han, M. Tani, F. Pan, and X. C. Zhang, “Use of the organic crystal DAST for THz beam applications,” Opt. Lett. 25, 675-677 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, “Far-infrared properties of DAST,” Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).
  13. A. Schneider, M. Stillhart, and P. Günter, “High efficiency generation and detection of THz pulses using laser pulses at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 14, 5376-5384 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic THz sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X. C. Zhang, “Distortion of THz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. R. Sliker and J. M. Jost, “Linear electro-optic effect and refractive indices of cubic ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 130-131 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, 1976).

2007 (2)

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (2)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X. C. Zhang, “Distortion of THz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic THz sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Aravazhi, S.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashcroft, N. W.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, 1976).

Bakker, H. J.

Biaggio, I.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, C.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, F. D.

Cho, G. C.

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gramlich, V.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Stillhart, and P. Günter, “High efficiency generation and detection of THz pulses using laser pulses at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 14, 5376-5384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of THz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, P. Y.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

Jazbinsek, M.

L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jensby, K.

Jeon, T. I.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jost, J. M.

Keiding, S. R.

Khan, R. U. A.

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mermin, N. D.

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, 1976).

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
[CrossRef]

Neis, M.

Okada, S.

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, F. Pan, and X. C. Zhang, “Use of the organic crystal DAST for THz beam applications,” Opt. Lett. 25, 675-677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, B.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of THz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Neis, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, R. U. A. Khan, and P. Günter, “Generation of THz pulses through optical rectification in organic DAST crystals: theory and experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1822-1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, M. Stillhart, and P. Günter, “High efficiency generation and detection of THz pulses using laser pulses at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Express 14, 5376-5384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sliker, T. R.

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stillhart, M.

Takahashi, H.

Tani, M.

Taniuchi, T.

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, “Far-infrared properties of DAST,” Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X. C. Zhang, “Distortion of THz pulses in electro-optic sampling,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic THz sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

L. Mutter, F. D. Brunner, Z. Yang, M. Jazbinsek, and P. Günter, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the organic crystal DSTMS,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2556-2561 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Q.

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. Yang, L. Mutter, M. Stillhart, B. Ruiz, S. Aravazhi, M. Jazbinsek, A. Schneider, V. Gramlich, and P. Günter, “Large-size bulk and thin-film stilbazolium-salt single crystals for nonlinear optics and THz generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2018-2023 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent THz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, “THz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of THz pulses in a birefringent crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, C. Bosshard, S. Follonier,R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, “Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Q. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T. I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, “Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, “Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic THz sensors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, C. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, “Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Widely tunable THz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004). Part 1.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. U. Jepsen, “Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin, Solid State Physics (Saunders, 1976).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular unit of DAST and DSTMS. The substitutes for DAST are X = H , whereas DSTMS has X = C H 3 . The positively charged chromophore is identical for both materials.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Crystalline structure of DSTMS [6]. The crystallographic b axis is parallel to the dielectric x 2 axis, whereas a slightly deviates from x 1 by an angle of 3.6 ± 0.3   degrees .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Refractive index n 1 ( ω ) and (b) the absorption coefficient α 1 ( ω ) of DSTMS. Open circles: measured data. Curves: theoretical functions, including three harmonic oscillators (see Eqs. (1, 2), and Table 2), with the same parameters in both plots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plots of the maximum effective length L max ( ω ) [see Eq. (5)] as a function of the pump wavelength λ and the THz frequency ν = ω 2 π . Top panel: DSTMS. Bottom panel: DAST (from [2]). The shading is in logarithmic scale and identical for both materials. The “valley” at the phonon resonance near 1 THz is narrower and less pronounced for DSTMS, and L max ( ω ) is more homogeneous than for DAST in the range of 1.5 to 3.5 THz .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured THz spectra E meas ( ω ) of DSTMS (thick curves) and DAST (thin curves) single crystals at a pump wavelength of 1400 nm , detected using electro-optic sampling in ZnTe at the second-harmonic wavelength of 700 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dashed curve: normalized filter function A ( ω ) L eff ( ω , z ) of the 0.5 mm ZnTe detector crystal according to Eq. (6) and [2]. Solid curve: effective emission spectrum of a 342 μ m DSTMS crystal, i.e., the measured spectrum from Fig. 5 corrected using the filter function. Dotted curve: corresponding effective emission of a 330 μ m DAST crystal.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Crystallographic Data of DSTMS [6] and DAST [7] with a,b,c as Unit Cell Dimensions a

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Table 2 Oscillator Parameters for DSTMS in the THz Frequency Range for Light Polarized Parallel to the x 1 -axis

Equations (10)

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n ( ω ) = n + i = 1 , 2 , 3 a i ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) 2 + 4 γ i 2 ω 2 ,
α ( ω ) = K ω 2 i = 1 , 2 , 3 2 γ i a i ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) 2 + 4 γ i 2 ω 2 ,
E em ( ω , z ) = μ 0 χ ( 2 ) ( ω ) ω I 0 ( ω ) n [ n ( ω ) + n g ] L eff ( ω , z ) .
L eff ( ω , z ) ( 1 + exp ( α ( ω ) z ) 2 exp ( α ( ω ) 2 z ) cos ( ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] z ) [ α ( ω ) 2 ] 2 + ( ω c ) 2 [ n ( ω ) n g ] 2 ) 1 2 .
L max ( ω ) max z [ L eff ( ω , z ) ] ,
E meas ( ω ) E em ( ω ) A ( ω ) L eff ( ω , z ) ,
ω TO 2 = e 2 V μ 4 π ( ε + 2 ) 2 9 ( ε dc ε ) ,
ν DS ν DA = ( χ , DS + 3 ) ( χ , DA + 3 ) μ DA μ DS .
ν DS ν DA = ( χ , DA V DA V DS + 3 ) ( χ , DA + 3 ) μ DA μ DS = 0.925.
ν DSTMS = 0.925 ν DAST = 1.017 THz .

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