Abstract

We propose a segmentation design approach for a cloak of arbitrary shape. We suggest that polygonal 2D cloaks with any number of sides, which do not require geometrical symmetry, can be achieved by dividing the polygon into many triangular regions and applying a spatial transformation on each triangle. This idea is verified by full-wave finite-element-based simulations, showing electromagnetic waves smoothly guided around cloaked perfect-conducting cylinders with different shapes of cross sections. This segmentation-transformation method can be well extended to cloaking of arbitrary shapes, including 3D cases. As an example, we simulate a cylindrical cloak whose cross section is very close to the contour of a woman, which demonstrates the validity of our method and further confirms the power of transformation optics.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Weder, “A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1069-1071 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (7)

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Weder, “A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1069-1071 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenleaf, A.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenneau, S.

Huangfu, J.

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, D.-H.

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lassas, M.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milton, G. W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolet, A.

Pendry, J. B.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Zolla, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet, and J. B. Pendry, “Electromagnetic analysis of cylindrical invisibility cloaks and the mirage effect,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1069-1071 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philbin, T. G.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popa, B.-I.

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qu, S.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ran, L.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794-9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlmann, G.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weder, R.

R. Weder, “A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Werner, D. H.

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.-I.

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, P.

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zolla, F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and G. W. Milton, “Nonmagnetic cloak with minimized scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional electromagnetic cloak having a uniform thickness for elliptic cylindrical regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 113502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kwon and D. H. Werner, “Two-dimensional eccentric elliptic electromagnetic cloaks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 013505 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. (1)

R. Weder, “A rigorous analysis of high-order electromagnetic invisibility cloaks,” J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41, 065207 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1, 224-227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” New J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. (1)

M. Rahm, D. Schurig, D. A. Roberts, S. A. Cummer, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Design of electromagnetic cloaks and concentrators using form-invariant coordinate transformations of Maxwell's equations,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. 6, 87-95 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Ma, S. Qu, Z. Xu, J. Zhang, B. Chen, and J. Wang, “Material parameter equation for elliptical cylindrical cloaks,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013825 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

H. Chen, Z. Liang, P. Yao, X. Jiang, H. Ma, and C. T. Chan, “Extending the bandwidth of electromagnetic cloaks,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 241104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, L. Ran, H. Chen, and J. A. Kong, “Design and analytical full-wave validation of the invisibility cloaks, concentrators, and field rotators created with a general class of transformations,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 125127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, J. Huangfu, Y. Luo, H. Chen, J. A. Kong, and B.-I. Wu, “Cloak for multilayered and gradually changing media,” Phys. Rev. B 77, 035116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. A. Cummer, B.-I. Popa, D. Schurig, D. R. Smith, and J. B. Pendry, “Full-wave simulations of electromagnetic cloaking structures,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 036621 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, B.-I. Wu, B. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, “Electromagnetic wave interactions with a metamaterial cloak,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas (1)

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Anisotropic conductivities that cannot be detected by EIT,” Physiol. Meas 24, 413-419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified model of a 2D cloak of arbitrary shape. The given shape is decomposed into several triangles sharing the same apex and the cloak is obtained by squeezing every triangular space (with the height a i ) into a trapezoidal space (with the height b i a i ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (d) An arbitrary 2D [(a) triangular, (d) quadrangular] PEC scatterer is directly subject to the horizontal TE wave illumination. (b), (c), (e), and (f) The electric field distribution of cloaked 2D PEC scatterer of four cases: (b) the triangular cloak under horizontal illumination, (c) the triangular cloak under oblique illumination, (e) the quadrangular cloak under horizontal illumination, (f) the quadrangular cloak under oblique illumination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric field distribution for the 2D cloaks with a cross section of (a) an equilateral pentagon, (b) a regular decagon, (c) and an icosagon, under TE wave illumination, which indicates the process of extending a polygon to approach a circle, and hence arbitrary shape.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric field distribution for a woman wearing a 2D cloak under TE mode plane-wave illumination from three different directions. (a) The plane wave is propagating in the x direction. (b) The plane wave is incident from top to bottom (in the y direction). (c) The cloaked cylinder under the illumination of a plane wave propagating in the direction 60° from the x axis.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ = b i a i b i ρ + a i cos ( φ γ i ) ,
ε ρ ρ = f i ( ρ , φ ) [ 1 + g i 2 ( ρ , φ ) ] , ε φ φ = 1 f i ( ρ , φ ) ,
ε z z = ( b b a ) 2 f i ( ρ , φ ) ,
ε ρ φ = ε φ ρ = g i ( ρ , φ ) , ε φ z = ε z φ = ε z ρ = ε ρ z = 0 ,
f i ( ρ , φ ) = ρ cos ( φ γ i ) a i ρ cos ( φ γ i ) , g i ( ρ , φ ) = a tan ( φ γ i ) ρ cos ( φ γ i ) a i .
ε 11 = μ 11 = 1 + f i 2 ( 1 + g i 2 ) + 1 + 2 f i 2 ( g i 2 1 ) + f i 4 ( 1 + g i 2 ) 2 2 f i ,
ε 22 = μ 22 = 1 + f i 2 ( 1 + g i 2 ) 1 + 2 f i 2 ( g i 2 1 ) + f i 4 ( 1 + g i 2 ) 2 2 f i ,
ε 33 = μ 33 = ( b b a ) 2 f i ,

Metrics