Abstract

We present theoretically and experimentally a novel type of parametric fluorescence and oscillation in which four optical waves in off-axis, diagonal directions simultaneously build up under resonant counterpropagating pump-laser excitation in atomic sodium vapor. Two of the four are anti-Stokes shifted and the other two are Stokes shifted, and they are strongly coupled owing to electromagnetically induced diffraction. Theoretically, the Liouville–Maxwell equations are solved to derive four-wave propagation equations. Experimentally, we have observed four-wave parametric oscillation when a weak off-axis seed beam is introduced into otherwise axially symmetric parametric fluorescence patterns. Temporal waveforms are also analyzed, and strong correlations between any pairs of the four emissions are identified.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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