Abstract

We characterized the temperature response of a ytterbium (Yb) system by measuring its temperature-dependent emission and absorption spectra and deriving parameters characterizing transitions among Stark levels by Lorentzian curve fitting. We found that even weak transitions in the Stark levels are distinct enough for this procedure when using a linear combination of measured spectra at 0°C and 100°C. A fiber amplifier model was established to determine temperature-dependent performance of Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. We concluded that the temperature dependence of the Yb-doped fiber amplifier is mainly determined by the saturation level PoutPpump, when PoutPpump>0.4; the higher the saturation levels, the less temperature dependence. When operating a Yb-doped fiber amplifier at low saturation, the temperature dependence is mainly determined by changes in absorption and emission coefficients at the signal wavelength and is the worst when operating around the short wavelength of 1020nm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1995 (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers," Phys. Rev. 134, A229-A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. M. Pask, R. J. Carman, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, C. J. Mackechnie, P. R. Barber, and J. M. Dawes, "Ytterbium-doped silica fiber lasers: versatile sources for the 1-1.2 μm region," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 2-13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, "Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers," Phys. Rev. 134, A229-A306 (1964).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Yb absorption cross sections at various temperatures, (b) Yb emission cross sections at various temperatures, and (c) measured and simulated Yb absorption and emission cross sections at 0 ° C and 100 ° C .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Difference of absorption and emission cross sections at 0 ° C and 100 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured and simulated Yb absorption and emission cross sections at 0 ° C and 100 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative output power change due to a temperature increase of 50 ° C of Yb fiber amplifiers is plotted against P out P pump . A 20 W counterpropagating pump at 975.8 nm is used. The length of the amplifier is chosen to give 25 dB small signal gain.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative output power change due to a temperature increase of 50 ° C of Yb fiber amplifiers is plotted against the wavelength for P out P pump 0 . The amplifier has 0.1 μ W input. A 20 W counterpropagating pump at 975.8 nm is used. The length of the amplifier is chosen to give 25 dB small signal gain. Temperature-dependent changes in absorption and emission coefficients are also plotted.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Yb-Doped Fiber Energy Levels

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Table 2 Resolved Transition Cross Sections

Equations (11)

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g a ( v ) = σ a ( v ) Γ ( v ) N , g e ( v ) = σ e ( v ) Γ ( v ) N ,
g a ( v , T ) = x = a d y = e g e E x k B T x = a d e E x k B T g x y ( v ) ,
g e ( v , T ) = x = e g y = a d e E x k B T x = e g e E x k B T g x y ( v ) ,
σ e ( v , T ) = σ a ( v , T ) e ( ε h v ) k T ,
e ε k T = e E e a k T 1 + e E b a k T + e E c a k T + e E d a k T 1 + e E f e k T + e E g e k T , E x y = E x E y .
g x y = g x y 0 1 + ( v v x y Δ v x y ) 2 .
g a ( v , T = 0 ° C ) 0.925354 × ( g a e + g a f ) + 0.069092 ( g b e + g b f ) ,
g a ( v , T = 100 ° C ) 0.852254 × ( g a e + g a f ) + 0.127585 × ( g b e + g b f ) .
g a ( v , Δ T = 0 ° C 100 ° C ) 0.0731 × ( g a e + g a f ) 0.058494 × ( g b e + g b f ) .
g a e + g a f = 0.0579837716 σ a ( T = 100 ° C ) + 0.127027795 σ a ( Δ T = 0 ° C 100 ° C ) 0.848530252 × 0.057983771 + 0.076184312 × 0.127027795 ,
g b e + g b f = 0.076184312 σ a ( T = 100 ° C ) 0.848530252 σ a ( Δ T = 0 ° C 100 ° C ) 0.127027795 × 0.076184312 + 0.057983771 × 0.848530252 .

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