Abstract

We present a detailed study of the spectroscopy and fluorescence properties of the Er:KPb2Cl5 laser crystal, together with complementary data to complete the existing literature in the visible and near UV spectral domain. It deals with fluorescence decays, with anti-Stokes emission spectra and of calibration of excited-state absorption and emission spectra in the cross-section unit in the region of optical excitation around 800nm. It brings new data for analyzing laser operation under one- and two-photon excitation conditions and for characterizing the involved energy transfer processes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, P. Smidt, “Further investigation of 4 μm laser materials,” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, M. M. Fejer, H. Ingeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 26, pp. 487–490.
  2. S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.
  3. N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, “Crystal field analysis of triply ionised rare-earth ions in lanthanum trifluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2366–2374 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Riedener, “Up-conversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Weber, “Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion limited relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932–2939 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Goldner, “Accuracy of the Judd–Ofelt theory,” special issue for the 40th anniversary of the Judd–Ofelt theory, Mol. Phys. 101, 903–908 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809–2817 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

2006

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Goldner, “Accuracy of the Judd–Ofelt theory,” special issue for the 40th anniversary of the Judd–Ofelt theory, Mol. Phys. 101, 903–908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, “Up-conversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, “Crystal field analysis of triply ionised rare-earth ions in lanthanum trifluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2366–2374 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

M. J. Weber, “Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion limited relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932–2939 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1948

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Al-Saleh, M.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biswal, S.

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Bogdanov, V. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Booth, D. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, S. R.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, P. Smidt, “Further investigation of 4 μm laser materials,” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, M. M. Fejer, H. Ingeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 26, pp. 487–490.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Braud, A.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
[CrossRef]

Carrig, T. J.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cascales, C.

C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaminade, J.-P.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Condon, N. J.

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Cui, Y.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Descamps, D.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J.–L.

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dušek, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernández, J.

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrier, A.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
[CrossRef]

Förster, T.

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, P. Smidt, “Further investigation of 4 μm laser materials,” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, M. M. Fejer, H. Ingeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 26, pp. 487–490.

Garcia–Adeva, A. J.

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, W. E. K.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldner, P.

P. Goldner, “Accuracy of the Judd–Ofelt theory,” special issue for the 40th anniversary of the Judd–Ofelt theory, Mol. Phys. 101, 903–908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gravereau, P.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groza, M.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, M.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isaenko, L. I.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, S. E.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Javorniczky, J. S.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, N. W.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.

Joubert, M. F.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Landais, J.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Le Boulanger, P.

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, “Crystal field analysis of triply ionised rare-earth ions in lanthanum trifluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2366–2374 (1979).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, D. R.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Margerie, J.

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maunier, C.

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Menaert, B.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mendioroz, A.

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, “Crystal field analysis of triply ionised rare-earth ions in lanthanum trifluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2366–2374 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. J.

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nijjar, A. S.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nikl, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nitsch, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, S. P.

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Péchev, S.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, O.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polák, K.

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Qadri, S. B.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
[CrossRef]

Riedener, T.

T. Riedener, “Up-conversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rodová, M.

K. Nitsch, M. Dušek, M. Nikl, K. Polák, M. Rodová, “Ternary alkali lead chlorides—crystal growth, crystal structure, absorption, and emission properties,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 30, 1–22 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roy, U. N.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, C. C.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sardar, D. K.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Searles, S. K.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, P. Smidt, “Further investigation of 4 μm laser materials,” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, M. M. Fejer, H. Ingeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 26, pp. 487–490.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skelton, E. F.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, N. W. Jenkins, S. B. Qadri, E. F. Skelton, “New mid-IR laser based on an erbium activated low phonon energy crystal” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, C. Marshall, ed. (Optical Society of America, 2001), Vol. 50.

Smidt, P.

S. R. Bowman, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, P. Smidt, “Further investigation of 4 μm laser materials,” in Trends in Optics and Photonics, M. M. Fejer, H. Ingeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), Vol. 26, pp. 487–490.

Smirnov, V. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velázquez, M.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voda, M.

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G. J.

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion limited relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932–2939 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Yelisseyev, A. P.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yow, R. M.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zandi, B.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zubenko, D. A.

D. A. Zubenko, M. A. Noginov, V. A. Smirnov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “Different mechanisms of nonlinear quenching of luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 8881–8886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 2, 55–75 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Inorg. Chem.

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, O. Pérez, S. Péchev, P. Gravereau, J.-P. Chaminade, R. Moncorgé, “A cationic order-disorder phase transition in KPb2Cl5,” Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 20, 4168–4178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+ and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, R. Moncorgé, “Spectroscopy and fluorescence dynamics of (Tm, Tb) and (Tm, Eu)-doped LiYF4 single crystals for 1.5 μm laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2246–2255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. B. Gruber, R. M. Yow, A. S. Nijjar, C. C. Russell, D. K. Sardar, B. Zandi, A. Burger, U. N. Roy, “Modeling the crystal-field splitting of energy levels of Er3+4f11 in charge-compensated sites of KPb2Cl5,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 043108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. 2. Pm3+, Sm3+, Er3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4412–4423 (1968) and subsequent papers.
[CrossRef]

C. A. Morrison, R. P. Leavitt, “Crystal field analysis of triply ionised rare-earth ions in lanthanum trifluoride,” J. Chem. Phys. 71, 2366–2374 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dexter, “A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836–850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

U. N. Roy, Y. Cui, M. Guo, M. Groza, A. Burger, G. J. Wagner, T. J. Carrig, S. A. Payne, “Growth and characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 as laser host crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 258, 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Velázquez, A. Ferrier, J.-P. Chaminade, B. Menaert, R. Moncorgé, “Growth and thermodynamic characterization of pure and Er-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Cryst. Growth 286, 324–333 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 264–276 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys.

P. Goldner, “Accuracy of the Judd–Ofelt theory,” special issue for the 40th anniversary of the Judd–Ofelt theory, Mol. Phys. 101, 903–908 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. Cascales, J. Fernandez, R. Balda, “Investigation of site-selective symmetries of Eu3+ ions in KPb2Cl5 by using optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 2141–2152 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

N. W. Jenkins, S. R. Bowman, S. O’Connor, S. K. Searles, J. Ganem, “Spectroscopic characterization of Er-doped KPb2Cl5 laser crystals,” Opt. Mater. 22, 311–320 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, N. J. Condon, S. P. O’Connor, S. Biswal, S. R. Bowman, “Up-conversion and excited-state absorption in the lower levels of Er:KPb2Cl5,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Opt. Spectrosc.

A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, L. I. Isaenko, A. P. Yelisseyev, M. F. Joubert, Y. Guyot, S. Payne, “Spectroscopic studies of erbium-doped potassium-lead double chloride crystals KPb2Cl5:Er3+:1. optical spectra and relaxation of excited states of the erbium ion in potassium-lead double chloride crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 772–740 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. Le Boulanger, J.–L. Doualan, S. Girard, J. Margerie, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption spectroscopy of Er3+-doped Y3Al5O12, YVO4, and phosphate glass,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 11380–11390 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Doualan, C. Maunier, D. Descamps, J. Landais, R. Moncorgé, “Excited-state absorption and up-conversion losses in the Nd-doped glasses for high-power lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 4459–4463 (2000) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

V. K. Bogdanov, D. J. Booth, W. E. K. Gibbs, J. S. Javorniczky, P. J. Newman, D. R. MacFarlane, “Population dynamics in Er3+-doped fluoride glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, “Multiphonon-assisted anti-Stokes and Stokes fluorescence of triply ionized rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. B 13, 2809–2817 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, J. Fernández, A. Mendioroz, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion processes in Pr3+∕Yb3+-codoped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 165101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia–Adeva, M. Voda, J. Fernández, “Up-conversion processes in Er3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” Phys. Rev. B 69, 205203 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, “Up-conversion mechanisms in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion limited relaxation,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932–2939 (1971).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low temperature ( 10 K ) transmission spectra of Er 3 + : KPC .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy level scheme and ESA and ETU processes following I 9 2 4 level excitation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Anti-Stokes luminescence spectra of Er 3 + : KPC obtained at 295 K after excitation at 804 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ground-state excitation spectrum for level I 9 2 4 and excitation spectra recorded at 800 nm by monitoring the emissions coming from the levels G 11 2 4 , H 9 2 2 , F 5 2 4 , S 3 2 4 , and F 9 2 4 at 380 , 410, 455, 550, and 650 nm , respectively. Also shown: square of the I 9 2 4 ground-state excitation spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Room temperature anti-Stokes fluorescence transients from levels H 9 2 2 , F 5 2 4 , obtained after I 9 2 4 level excitation at 804 and 824 nm for H 9 2 2 and 804 and 816 nm for F 5 2 4 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Room-temperature anti-Stokes fluorescence transients from level G 11 2 4 and S 3 2 4 obtained after I 9 2 4 level excitation at 804 nm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ground- and excited-state absorption and emission cross-section spectra σ GSA , σ ESA , and σ SE , respectively, determined at 800 nm .

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Comparison of Stark Sublevel Energies of Er 3 + : K Pb 2 Cl 5 Obtained from Experimental Measurements with Stark Sublevel Energies Obtained by Crystal Field Calculations a

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Table 2 Comparison between Experimental Lifetimes τ exp Obtained from Several Works with Radiative Lifetimes τ rad Determined by Using the Judd–Ofelt Method; Lifetimes Given in Microseconds a

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Table 3 Comparison Between Integrated Ground- and Excited-State Absorption Cross Sections σ E ( G ) SA ( λ ) d λ (in 10 20 cm 2 nm ) Obtained Experimentally and Calculated by Using the Judd–Ofelt Method a

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Table 4 Experimentally Derived Nonradiative Energy Transfer Microparameters

Equations (17)

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E ( 1 ) = 6769.9 , E ( 2 ) = 32.388 , E ( 3 ) = 646.62 ,
ξ = 2380.7 , α = 18.347 , β = 509.28 ,
γ = 649.71 .
H CF = k , q B q k i C q k ( i ) ,
B q k ( Er 3 + ) = ρ k ( Er 3 + ) ρ k ( Eu 3 + ) B q k ( Eu 3 + ) ,
B 0 2 = 192 , B 2 2 = 9.8 , B 0 4 = 254.8 , Re B 2 4 = 983 ,
Im B 2 4 = 200.5 ,
Re B 4 4 = 4.6 , Im B 4 4 = 148.1 , B 0 6 = 145.3 ,
Re B 2 6 = 70.9 , Im B 2 6 = 51.3 ,
Re B 4 6 = 155.8 , Im B 4 6 = 0.4 , Re B 6 6 = 5.7 ,
Im B 6 6 = 169.8 .
n ( t ) = a e t τ 5 + b e 2 t τ 3 c e 2 t τ 4 ,
σ SE ( λ ) = λ 5 β I ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 τ rad λ I ( λ ) d λ .
σ ABS ( λ ) = σ SE ( λ ) Z up Z low exp [ 1 k B T ( E ZL h c λ ) ] ,
C DA = 3 c 8 π 4 n 2 σ ESA ( λ ) σ ES ( λ ) d λ ,
C DD = 3 c 8 π 4 n 2 σ GSA ( λ ) σ ES ( λ ) d λ .
C * = N * N 2 3 . ( 2 π 3 ) 7 2 C DA C DD .

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