Abstract

By using RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystals as an electro-optic (EO) modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber as a passive Q switch, a high repetition rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) is realized. In comparison to an EO Q-switched IOPO, the lower threshold energy, the higher output energy, the narrower pulse width, and the higher conversion efficiency from the doubly Q-switched IOPO can be obtained. By considering the gradual loss from the delayed switched time of the EO switch, the coupled rate equations of doubly Q-switched IOPO under the assumption of the uniform distributions of the intracavity photon densities are given, and the numerical solution of the equations fits the experimental data well.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. T. Murray, A. C. Powell, C. Smith, W. Austin, and R. A. Stolzenberger, "Generation of 1.5 μm radiation through intracavity solid-state Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2," Opt. Lett. 20, 1017-1019 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, "Compensation of thermal lensing in an eye-safe cascade Raman laserwith Ba(NO3)2 crystal," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 99 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 744-755.
  7. L. R. Marshall, J. Kasinski, and R. Burnham, "Diode-pumped eye-safe laser source exceeding 1% efficiency," Opt. Lett. 16, 1680-1682 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and X. Zhang, Principles of Lasers (Shandong U. Press, 1993) (in Chinese).
  21. I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).
  25. G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Oxide crystals for electro-optic Q-switching," Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Nickel, C. Stolzenburg, A. Beyertt, A. Giesen, J. Häußermann, F. Butze, and M. Leitner, "200 kHz electro-optic switch for ultrafast laser systems," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, and J. Kwiatkowski, "Intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1572 nm wavelength pumped by passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 355-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1991

L. R. Marshall, J. Kasinski, and R. Burnham, "Diode-pumped eye-safe laser source exceeding 1% efficiency," Opt. Lett. 16, 1680-1682 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1970

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, and J. Kwiatkowski, "Intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1572 nm wavelength pumped by passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 355-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem.

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Oxide crystals for electro-optic Q-switching," Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Nickel, C. Stolzenburg, A. Beyertt, A. Giesen, J. Häußermann, F. Butze, and M. Leitner, "200 kHz electro-optic switch for ultrafast laser systems," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Lehiush, R. Lavi, Y. Tzuk, N. Angert, A. Gachechiladze, M. Tseitlin, A. Zharo, and M. Roth, "High repetition rate end-pumped electro-optic RTP Q-switch Nd:YVOd laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2000. Conference Digest (IEEE, 2000), paper CTuA5.

Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, R. Zhang, K. K. Li, and H. Jiang, "Low voltage, high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 05 (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1094-1094.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and X. Zhang, Principles of Lasers (Shandong U. Press, 1993) (in Chinese).

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, "Compensation of thermal lensing in an eye-safe cascade Raman laserwith Ba(NO3)2 crystal," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 99 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 744-755.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of Xe flash-lamp-pumped doubly switched Nd:YAG/KTP IOPO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependences of output signal energy on flash-lamp-pumping energy at two different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse width of the signal light versus flash-lamp-pumping energy at different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak power of the signal light versus flash-lamp-pumping energy at different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Undepleted and depleted fundamental profiles from the doubly Q-switched laser cavity when the modulating rate is 15 kHz and the input flash-lamp-pumping energy is 11.1 J .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conversion efficiencies for two kinds of Q-switched IOPO when f p = 15 kHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental and calculated values of signal peak power for doubly switched IOPO at two different modulating repetition rates. Scattered, experimental; solid, calculated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profiles of the signal light with a flash-lamp-pumping energy of 11.88 and 20.08 J at f p = 15 kHz , T 1573 = 30 % ; solid, experimental; dotted, calculated.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Parameters of the Fundamental Laser Cavity

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical Parameters of the OPO Cavity

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P peak = E pulse W ,
d E p ( t ) d t = 1 2 t r [ 2 σ l g n ( t ) ( σ g σ e ) l y n y 1 ( t ) σ e l y n y 0 δ T ( t ) δ e ( t ) L ] E p ( t ) δ ω p I l KTP 4 ε p l E s ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E s ( t ) d t = E s ( t ) 2 τ s + δ ω s I l KTP 4 ε s l OPO E p ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E i ( t ) d t = E i ( t ) 2 τ i + δ ω i I l KTP 4 ε i l OPO E p ( t ) E s ( t ) ,
d n ( t ) d t = n ( t ) τ σ c ε p n ( t ) 4 ω p E p 2 ( t ) ,
d n y 1 ( r , t ) d t = n y 0 n y 1 ( r , t ) τ y ε p 4 ω p σ g c n y 1 ( r , t ) E p 2 ( r , t ) ,
δ e ( t ) = δ e exp [ ( t t EO ) 2 ] ,

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