Abstract

By using RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystals as an electro-optic (EO) modulator and Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber as a passive Q switch, a high repetition rate doubly Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) is realized. In comparison to an EO Q-switched IOPO, the lower threshold energy, the higher output energy, the narrower pulse width, and the higher conversion efficiency from the doubly Q-switched IOPO can be obtained. By considering the gradual loss from the delayed switched time of the EO switch, the coupled rate equations of doubly Q-switched IOPO under the assumption of the uniform distributions of the intracavity photon densities are given, and the numerical solution of the equations fits the experimental data well.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. T. Murray, A. C. Powell, C. Smith, W. Austin, and R. A. Stolzenberger, "Generation of 1.5 μm radiation through intracavity solid-state Raman shifting in Ba(NO3)2," Opt. Lett. 20, 1017-1019 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, "Compensation of thermal lensing in an eye-safe cascade Raman laserwith Ba(NO3)2 crystal," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 99 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 744-755.
  7. L. R. Marshall, J. Kasinski, and R. Burnham, "Diode-pumped eye-safe laser source exceeding 1% efficiency," Opt. Lett. 16, 1680-1682 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Dabu, C. Fenic, and A. Stratan, "Intracavity pumped nanosecond optical parametric oscillator emitting in the eye-safe range," Appl. Opt. 40, 4334-4340 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Oxide crystals for electro-optic Q-switching," Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86-95 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Nickel, C. Stolzenburg, A. Beyertt, A. Giesen, J. Häußermann, F. Butze, and M. Leitner, "200 kHz electro-optic switch for ultrafast laser systems," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033111 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, R. Zhang, K. K. Li, and H. Jiang, "Low voltage, high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 05 (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1094-1094.
  19. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and X. Zhang, Principles of Lasers (Shandong U. Press, 1993) (in Chinese).
  21. I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).
  25. G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Oxide crystals for electro-optic Q-switching," Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Nickel, C. Stolzenburg, A. Beyertt, A. Giesen, J. Häußermann, F. Butze, and M. Leitner, "200 kHz electro-optic switch for ultrafast laser systems," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, and J. Kwiatkowski, "Intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1572 nm wavelength pumped by passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 355-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1991 (2)

L. R. Marshall, J. Kasinski, and R. Burnham, "Diode-pumped eye-safe laser source exceeding 1% efficiency," Opt. Lett. 16, 1680-1682 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

W. Zendzian, J. K. Jabczynski, and J. Kwiatkowski, "Intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1572 nm wavelength pumped by passively Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 355-358 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, "Diode-pumped bulk erbium-ytterbium lasers," Appl. Phys. B 63, 425-436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, S. W. Chen, S. W. Tsai, and Y. P. Lan, "High-repetition-rate eye-safe optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser," Appl. Phys. B 76, 263-266 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, J. Zou, P. Song, and W. Wu, "Pulse compression in AO Q-switched diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 687-692 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. O. Ammann, J. M. Yarborough, M. K. Oshman, and P. C. Montgomery, "Efficient internal optical parametric oscillation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 309-312 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Glass Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Roth, M. Tseitlin, and N. Angert, "Oxide crystals for electro-optic Q-switching," Glass Phys. Chem. 31, 86-95 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

X. Peng, L. Xu, and A. Asundi, "Highly efficient high-repetition-rate tunable all-solid-state optical parametric oscillator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 53-61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "A new model of laser-diode end-pumped actively Q-switched intracavity frequency doubling laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1252-1257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Xiao, M. Bass, and M. Acharekar, "Passively Q-switched solid-state lasers with intracavity optical parametric oscillators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 2241-2245 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

I. F. Elder and J. A. C. Terry, "Efficient conversion into the near- and mid-infrared using a PPLN OPO," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, L19-L23 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

G. Li, S. Zhao, K. Yang, and W. Wu, "Pulse width reduction in diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser with AO and GaAs double Q switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 44, 3017-3021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Miao, H. Tan, H. Bian, B. Wang, and J. Peng, "Low threshold narrow pulse width eye-safe intracavity optical parametric oscillator at 1573 nm," Opt. Commun. 265, 349-353 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Levoshkin, A. Peirov, and J. E. Montage, "High efficiency diode pumped Q-switched Yb:Er:glass laser," Opt. Commun. 185, 399-405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

K. Yang, S. Zhao, G. Li, and H. Zhao, "Theoretical and experimental study of a laser-diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser with acoustic-optic modulator," Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 381-386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. R. Marshall, A. D. Hays, and J. Kasinski, "Highly efficient optical parametric oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1419, 141-152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Sennaroglu, "Broadly tunable Cr-doped solid-state lasers in the near infrared and visible," Prog. Quantum Electron. 26, 287-352 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Nickel, C. Stolzenburg, A. Beyertt, A. Giesen, J. Häußermann, F. Butze, and M. Leitner, "200 kHz electro-optic switch for ultrafast laser systems," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 033111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. Lehiush, R. Lavi, Y. Tzuk, N. Angert, A. Gachechiladze, M. Tseitlin, A. Zharo, and M. Roth, "High repetition rate end-pumped electro-optic RTP Q-switch Nd:YVOd laser," in Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 2000. Conference Digest (IEEE, 2000), paper CTuA5.

Y. K. Zou, Q. Chen, R. Zhang, K. K. Li, and H. Jiang, "Low voltage, high repetition rate electro-optic Q-switch," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 05 (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 2, pp. 1094-1094.

Q. Wang, S. Zhao, and X. Zhang, Principles of Lasers (Shandong U. Press, 1993) (in Chinese).

N. Takei, S. Suzuki, and F. Kannari, "Compensation of thermal lensing in an eye-safe cascade Raman laserwith Ba(NO3)2 crystal," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Pacific Rim 99 (IEEE, 1999), pp. 744-755.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of Xe flash-lamp-pumped doubly switched Nd:YAG/KTP IOPO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependences of output signal energy on flash-lamp-pumping energy at two different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse width of the signal light versus flash-lamp-pumping energy at different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak power of the signal light versus flash-lamp-pumping energy at different repetitions in the conditions of doubly and EO switching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Undepleted and depleted fundamental profiles from the doubly Q-switched laser cavity when the modulating rate is 15 kHz and the input flash-lamp-pumping energy is 11.1 J .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conversion efficiencies for two kinds of Q-switched IOPO when f p = 15 kHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental and calculated values of signal peak power for doubly switched IOPO at two different modulating repetition rates. Scattered, experimental; solid, calculated.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Profiles of the signal light with a flash-lamp-pumping energy of 11.88 and 20.08 J at f p = 15 kHz , T 1573 = 30 % ; solid, experimental; dotted, calculated.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical Parameters of the Fundamental Laser Cavity

Tables Icon

Table 2 Theoretical Parameters of the OPO Cavity

Equations (7)

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P peak = E pulse W ,
d E p ( t ) d t = 1 2 t r [ 2 σ l g n ( t ) ( σ g σ e ) l y n y 1 ( t ) σ e l y n y 0 δ T ( t ) δ e ( t ) L ] E p ( t ) δ ω p I l KTP 4 ε p l E s ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E s ( t ) d t = E s ( t ) 2 τ s + δ ω s I l KTP 4 ε s l OPO E p ( t ) E i ( t ) ,
d E i ( t ) d t = E i ( t ) 2 τ i + δ ω i I l KTP 4 ε i l OPO E p ( t ) E s ( t ) ,
d n ( t ) d t = n ( t ) τ σ c ε p n ( t ) 4 ω p E p 2 ( t ) ,
d n y 1 ( r , t ) d t = n y 0 n y 1 ( r , t ) τ y ε p 4 ω p σ g c n y 1 ( r , t ) E p 2 ( r , t ) ,
δ e ( t ) = δ e exp [ ( t t EO ) 2 ] ,

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