Abstract

Metaphosphate glasses doped with five concentrations of Er3+ ions have been investigated through absorption and emission spectra, decay curves, and upconversion measurements. Judd–Ofelt parameters have been evaluated from absorption spectrum of the 1.0mol.% Er3+-doped glass, which are in turn used to predict radiative properties of some important luminescence levels of Er3+ ions in these glasses. Gain bandwidths of an optical amplifier have been evaluated and are compared with those of reported Er3+:glass systems. Temperature dependence of the 1.5μm emission has been studied for the 2.0mol.% Er3+-doped glass from 13K to room temperature. Lifetimes of the I1324 level were measured and are found to decrease with concentration of Er3+ ions after 0.1mol.%. Concentration quenching of lifetimes has been analyzed using the theory developed by Auzel et al. [J. Lumin. 94–95, 293 (2001) ; Opt. Mater. 24, 103 (2003) ]. Infrared to visible upconversion was also measured for three concentrations of Er3+-doped metaphosphate glasses with 794nm excitation. A mechanism, involving excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion, has been proposed to explain the upconversion process.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, "Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 318-341 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, "General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross-sections," Opt. Lett. 16, 258-260 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).
  17. F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  18. F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. A. Pisarski, "Spectroscopic analysis of praseodymium and erbium ions in heavy metal fluoride and oxide glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 744-747, 473-479 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  23. X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneidner, Jr., and L.Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, 1998), pp. 101-264.
  27. P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. Renuka Devi and C. K. Jayasankar, "Optical properties of Er3+ ions in lithium borate and comparative energy level analyses of Er3+ ions in various glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 197, 111-128 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC, 1996).
  34. H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O∙Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602-609 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  36. H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers," Opt. Mater. 27, 679-690 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  37. R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  38. L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  41. S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  45. R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion of Er3+ ions in GeO2-PbO-Nb2O5 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 744-752 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  46. K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).
  47. M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  48. X. Zou and T. Izumitani, "Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68-80 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (7)

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. A. Pisarski, "Spectroscopic analysis of praseodymium and erbium ions in heavy metal fluoride and oxide glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 744-747, 473-479 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers," Opt. Mater. 27, 679-690 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (9)

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Balda, A. J. Garcia-Adeva, J. Fernandez, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, "Infrared-to-visible upconversion of Er3+ ions in GeO2-PbO-Nb2O5 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 744-752 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

2001 (2)

H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O∙Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602-609 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (6)

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, "Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 318-341 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC, 1996).

A. Renuka Devi and C. K. Jayasankar, "Optical properties of Er3+ ions in lithium borate and comparative energy level analyses of Er3+ ions in various glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 197, 111-128 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, "Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68-80 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[Crossref]

An, Q. D.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Annapurna, K.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Appa Rao, B.

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Babu, P.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnaiah, R.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Balda, R.

Baldacchini, G.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

Binnemans, K.

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneidner, Jr., and L.Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, 1998), pp. 101-264.

Bonfigli, F.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boulon, G.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brow, R. K.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Buffeteau, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. H.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, "Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 318-341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Capek, P.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carlson, K.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chaudhuri, A. K.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Chen, B.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Click, C. A.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Courrol, L. C.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dai, S.

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

Dwivedi, R. N.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Ehrmann, P. R.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ehrt, D.

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

El-Mallawany, R.

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fdez-Navarro, J. M.

Fernandez, J.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Francini, R.

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Friend, C. S.

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fuflyigin, V.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gagliari, S.

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Adeva, A. J.

Giovenale, F.

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gomes, L.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goodman, G. L.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gorller-Walrand, C.

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneidner, Jr., and L.Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, 1998), pp. 101-264.

Grassano, U. M.

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gudel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guyot, Y.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heidepriem, H. E.

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Honhanen, S.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, B-C.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, J. A.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hwang, B. C.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

Izumitani, T.

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, "Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68-80 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jang, K. H.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jayasankar, C. K.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Renuka Devi and C. K. Jayasankar, "Optical properties of Er3+ ions in lithium borate and comparative energy level analyses of Er3+ ions in various glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 197, 111-128 (1996).
[Crossref]

Jayasimhadri, M.

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S. B.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z. H.

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Joshi, A. S.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC, 1996).

Kanno, R.

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kapoor, R.

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

Karmakar, B.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Kassab, L. R. P.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, Y.

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kojima, K.

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kolek, O.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Kundu, P.

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Kushida, T.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Laversenne, L.

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laxmi Kanth, C.

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O∙Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602-609 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. R.

Liu, Y. H.

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lucas, J.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

Luo, T.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ma, T. C.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Man, S. Q.

Mika, M.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miniscalco, M. J.

Moorthy, L. R.

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Myers, J.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

Myers, M.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Naftaly, M.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nunzi-Conti, G.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers," Opt. Mater. 27, 679-690 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oswald, J.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patra, A.

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petit, L.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peyghabarian, N.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pisarski, W. A.

W. A. Pisarski, "Spectroscopic analysis of praseodymium and erbium ions in heavy metal fluoride and oxide glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 744-747, 473-479 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Porque, J.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Lin, E. Y. B. Pun, S. Q. Man, and X. R. Liu, "Optical transitions and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in Na2O∙Ca3Al2Ge3O12 glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 602-609 (2001).
[Crossref]

Qiao, X.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

Quimby, R. S.

Ragavaiah, B. V.

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Rana, R. S.

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ren, X.

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Renuka Devi, A.

A. Renuka Devi and C. K. Jayasankar, "Optical properties of Er3+ ions in lithium borate and comparative energy level analyses of Er3+ ions in various glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 197, 111-128 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rhonehouse, D.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Russell, C. C.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salavcova, L.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salley, E.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schrofel, J.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seneschal, K.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

Seo, H. J.

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seragioli, R.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shionoya, S.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
[Crossref]

Smekatala, F.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

Speghini, A.

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spirkova, J.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Steele, R. A.

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T. I.

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, "Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 318-341 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, K.

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, S.

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tatumi, S. H.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tobben, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tresnakova, P.

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trussell, C. W.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Veeraiah, N.

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

Videau, J. J.

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wen, L.

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wetenkamp, L.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wetter, N. U.

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilke, G. D.

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamauchi, H.

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers," Opt. Mater. 27, 679-690 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yow, R. M.

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. Y.

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zandi, B.

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zao, J.

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y. F.

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zou, X.

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, "Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68-80 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Lin, K. Liu, E. Y. B. Pun, T. C. Ma, X. Peng, Q. D. An, J. Y. Yu, and S. B. Jiang, "Infrared and visible fluorescence in Er3+-doped gallium tellurite glasses," Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 146-150 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (3)

H. Sun, S. Xu, S. Dai, J. Zhang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Intense frequency upconversion fluorescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped novel potassium-barium-strontium-lead-bismuth glasses," J. Alloys Compd. 391, 198-201 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Y. H. Liu, Y. F. Zhou, and Z. H. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped tellurite glass for 1.55μm optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 397, 286-290 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xu, Z. Yang, S. Dai, J. Yang, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectral properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for broadband optical amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 361, 313-319 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

D. K. Sardar, C. C. Russell III, and R. M. Yow, "Spectroscopic analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in NaBi(WO4)2," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1180-1184 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Yang, S. Dai, Y. Zhou, L. Wen, L. Hu, and Z. Jiang, "Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass for optical amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, and C. W. Trussell, "Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in phosphate glass: Er3+,Yb3+," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 2041-2046 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, "Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+,Nd3+,Pm3+,Sm3+,Dy3+,Ho3+,Er3+ and Tm3+," J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424-4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

W. T. Carnall, G. L. Goodman, K. Rajnak, and R. S. Rana, "A systematic analysis of the spectra of the lanthanides doped into single crystal LaF3," J. Chem. Phys. 90, 3443-3457 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, "Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions," J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511-520 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

F. Auzel, F. Bonfigli, S. Gagliari, and G. Baldacchini, "The interplay of self-trapping and self-quenching for resonant transitions in solids; role of a cavity," J. Lumin. 94-95, 293-297 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. Laxmi Kanth, B. V. Ragavaiah, B. Appa Rao, and N. Veeraiah, "Optical absorption, fluorescence and thermoluminescence properties of ZnF2-MO-TeO2 (MO=ZnO,CdO and PbO) glasses doped with Er3+ ions," J. Lumin. 109, 193-205 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

W. A. Pisarski, "Spectroscopic analysis of praseodymium and erbium ions in heavy metal fluoride and oxide glasses," J. Mol. Struct. 744-747, 473-479 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (11)

A. Renuka Devi and C. K. Jayasankar, "Optical properties of Er3+ ions in lithium borate and comparative energy level analyses of Er3+ ions in various glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 197, 111-128 (1996).
[Crossref]

L. Petit, T. Cardinal, J. J. Videau, Y. Guyot, G. Boulon, M. Couzi, and T. Buffeteau, "Erbium luminescence properties of niobium-rich oxide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 2076-2084 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. E. Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, M. Bettinelli, and A. Speghini, "Effect of glass composition on Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative decay rates of Er3+-in fluoride phosphate and phosphate glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 240, 66-78 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. I. Suratwala, R. A. Steele, G. D. Wilke, J. H. Campbell, and K. Takeuchi, "Effects of OH content, water vapor pressure, and temperature on sub-critical crack growth in phosphate glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 213-237 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. H. Campbell and T. I. Suratwala, "Nd-doped phosphate glasses for high-energy/high-peak-power lasers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 318-341 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, F. Smekatala, K. Seneschal, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghabarian, "Er3+-doped phosphate glasses for fiber amplifiers with high gain per unit length," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 263-264, 364-368 (2000).
[Crossref]

L. R. P. Kassab, L. C. Courrol, R. Seragioli, N. U. Wetter, S. H. Tatumi, and L. Gomes, "Er3+ laser transition in PbO-PbF2-B2O3 glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 94-97 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, "Optical properties of rare-earth doped ZBLAN glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35-40 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Takahashi, R. Kanno, Y. Kawamoto, S. Tanabe, and K. Hirao, "Compositional dependence of Er3+ upconversion luminescence in MF-LiF-ZrF4 glasses (M: alkali metals)," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 137-143 (1994).
[Crossref]

X. Zou and T. Izumitani, "Spectroscopic properties and mechanisms of excited state absorption and energy transfer upconversion for Er3+-doped glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162, 68-80 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

P. Babu, H. J. Seo, K. H. Jang, R. Balakrishnaiah, C. K. Jayasankar, and A. S. Joshi, "Optical spectroscopy and energy transfer in Tm3+-doped metaphosphate laser glasses," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 4859-4876 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Jayasimhadri, L. R. Moorthy, K. Kojima, K. Yamamoto, N. Wada, and N. Wada, "Er3+-doped tellurofluorophosphate glasses for lasers and optical amplifiers," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 7705-7715 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

N. Yamada, S. Shionoya, and T. Kushida, "Phonon-assisted energy transfer between trivalent rare earth ions," J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 32, 1577-1586 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, and A. Jha, "Tungsten-tellurite--a host glass for broadband EDFA," Opt. Commun. 205, 101-105 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B-C. Huang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honhanen, and N. Peyghambarian, "New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion exchanged waveguide amplifiers," Opt. Eng. 37, 3282-3286 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (8)

P. Capek, M. Mika, J. Oswald, P. Tresnakova, L. Salavcova, O. Kolek, J. Schrofel, and J. Spirkova, "Effect of divalent cations on properties of Er3+-doped silicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 27, 331-336 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Auzel, G. Baldacchini, L. Laversenne, and G. Boulon, "Radiation trapping and self-quenching analysis in Yb3+,Er3+, and Ho3+ doped Y2O3," Opt. Mater. 24, 103-109 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, J. Zhang, J. Sun, S. Lu, and X. Wang, "Spectroscopic properties of tungsten-tellurite glasses doped with Er3+ ions at different concentrations," Opt. Mater. 28, 255-258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, S. Lu, X. Ren, B. Chen, and X. Wang, "Thermal stability and spectral properties of Er3+-doped gadolinium borosilicate glasses," Opt. Mater. 28, 306-309 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, "Spectroscopic properties of Er3+-doped PbO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glass for optical amplifiers," Opt. Mater. 27, 679-690 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. El-Mallawany, A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, "Study of luminescence properties of Er3+-ions in new tellurite glasses," Opt. Mater. 26, 267-270 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Qiao, X. Fan, M. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Up-conversion luminescence and near infrared luminescence of Er3+ in transparent oxyfluoride glass-ceramics," Opt. Mater. 27, 597-603 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Francini, F. Giovenale, U. M. Grassano, P. Laporta, and S. Taccheo, "Spectroscopy of Er and Er-Yb-doped phosphate glasses," Opt. Mater. 13, 417-425 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

K. Annapurna, R. N. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, P. Kundu, B. Karmakar, and A. K. Chaudhuri, "Upconversion green emission and 1.5μm infrared emission in Er3+ doped 60ZnO.20B2O3.19SiO2 glass," Phys. Chem. Glasses 43, 20-24 (2002).

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, "Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions," Phys. Rev. 127, 750-761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337-3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Porque, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, V. Fuflyigin, E. Salley, J. Zao, and N. Peyghambarian, "Fluorescence properties of erbium-doped germinate glasses," Proc. SPIE 3942, 60-67 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, M. Myers, J. Myers, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, "Phosphate glasses for high average power lasers," Proc. SPIE 3280, 2-13 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

C. Gorller-Walrand and K. Binnemans, "Spectral intensities of f-f transitions," in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K.A.Gschneidner, Jr., and L.Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, 1998), pp. 101-264.

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC, 1996).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glass in the (a) UV-VIS and (b) near-infrared regions. The band assignments are transitions from the ground state, I 15 2 4 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and emission cross sections of the I 15 2 4 I 13 2 4 and I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 transitions, respectively, in the 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glass at room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emission cross sections of the I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 transition for different concentrations of Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glasses at room temperature ( λ ex = 975 nm ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectra of the I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 transition in the 2.0 mol. % Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glass at different temperatures. The spectra are normalized with respect to maximum of the peak ( λ ex = 975 nm ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay curves of the I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 transition for different concentrations of Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glasses at room temperature ( λ ex = 975 nm ) .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of lifetime and quantum efficiency with concentration ( mol. % ) of Er 3 + ions in PKBAEr glasses.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Quenching of the I 13 2 4 lifetime with Er 3 + ion concentration ( ions cm 3 ) in PKBAEr glasses. The curves are simulations using Eqs. (2, 3) for diffusion limited (lower curve) and fast diffusion (upper curve), respectively, along with experimental data (middle curve).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Upconversion spectra for different concentrations of Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glasses ( λ ex = 794 nm ) at room temperature. The spectra were measured under identical conditions. Inset shows the pump power dependence of the 545 nm green upconversion emission for 2.0 mol. % Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glass. The red emission band (for 2.0 mol. % Er 3 + -doped glass) is shown with ten fold magnification.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Absorption ( Er 3 + : 1.0 mol. % ) and excitation ( Er 3 + : 2.0 mol. % ) spectra of the I 15 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition in PKBAEr glasses. Excitation spectrum was measured by monitoring the 545 nm upconversion emission.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stokes emission spectra under direct excitation ( λ ex = 488 nm ) for different concentrations of Er 3 + -doped PKBAEr glasses at room temperature. The spectra are normalized with respect to maximum of the S 3 2 4 I 15 2 4 band.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Partial energy level diagram of Er 3 + in PKBAEr glass showing different transitions related to Stokes emission under direct excitation and upconversion emission. GSA, ground-state absorption; ESA, excited-state absorption; ETU, energy transfer upconversion.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Transitions (From the Ground State, I 15 2 4 ), Absorption Band Positions ( λ p ) Experimental ( f exp ) , and Calculated ( f cal ) Oscillator Strengths ( 10 6 ) of 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -Doped PKBAER Glass and Experimental Oscillator Strengths of Some Reported Er 3 + :Glass Systems

Tables Icon

Table 2 Judd–Ofelt Parameters ( Ω λ , 10 20 cm 2 ) and Spectroscopic Quality Factor ( χ = Ω 4 Ω 6 ) for 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -Doped PKBAEr Glass and for Some of the Reported Er 3 + :Glass Systems

Tables Icon

Table 3 Emission Transitions ( SLJ S L J ) , Energy Gap ( Δ E ) , Predicted Radiative Transition Probabilities ( A ) , Branching Ratios ( β R ) , and Lifetimes ( τ R ) of Some Important Luminescent Levels of 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -Doped PKBAEr Glass

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of Predicted Radiative Lifetimes (ms) of Some Important Luminescent Levels of 1.0 mol. % Er 3 + -Doped PKBAEr Glass with Some Reported Er 3 + :Glass Systems

Tables Icon

Table 5 Emission Peak Positions ( λ p ) , Effective Linewidths (FWHM), and Peak Stimulated Emission Cross Sections ( σ e peak ) of the I 13 2 4 I 15 2 4 Transition and Gain Bandwidth of an Optical Amplifier ( FWHM × σ e peak ) for Different Concentrations of Er 3 + -Doped PKBAEr Glasses and for Some Reported Er 3 + :Glass Systems

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η = τ meas τ rad × 100 ,
τ ( N ) = τ w 1 + 9 2 π ( N N 0 ) 2 ,
τ ( N ) = τ w 1 + 1.45 N N 0 s s exp ( β Δ E 4 ) ,

Metrics