Abstract

The optical tuning of InP-based planar photonic crystals (PhCs) infiltrated with a photoresponsive liquid crystal system is presented. Photoinduced phase transitions of a liquid crystal blend doped with azobenzene molecules are used to tune the optical response of PhC cavities. This process is found to be reversible and stable. Several tuning conditions are analyzed in terms of the blend phase diagram.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. B. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, Photonic Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).
  3. A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, S. McBride, and P. Zanzucchi, "Modulating dispersion properties of low index photonic crystal structures using microfluidics," Proc. SPIE 6128, 61280W-1 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, "Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2858-2860 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30, 64-66 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  19. J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. H. Legge and G. R. Mitchell, "Photo-induced phase transitions in azobenzene-doped liquid crystals," J. Phys. D 25, 492-499 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Ikeda, "Photomodulation of liquid crystal orientations for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037-2057 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Refractive indices of liquid crystals E7 and K15 in the mid- and near-IR regions," J. Opt. Technol. 73, 315-317 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, "Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 250-261 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  28. M. Plihal and A. A. Maradudin, "Photonic band structure of two-dimensional systems: the triangular lattice," Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565-8571 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (10)

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, "Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 250-261 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, S. McBride, and P. Zanzucchi, "Modulating dispersion properties of low index photonic crystal structures using microfluidics," Proc. SPIE 6128, 61280W-1 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, "Refractive indices of liquid crystals E7 and K15 in the mid- and near-IR regions," J. Opt. Technol. 73, 315-317 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (6)

F. Raineri, C. Cojocaru, R. Raj, P. Monnier, A. Levenson, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, and P. Viktorovitch, "Tuning a two-dimensional photonic crystal resonance via optical carrier injection," Opt. Lett. 30, 64-66 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Ndi, J. Toulouse, T. Hodson, and D. W. Prather, "All-optical switching in silicon photonic crystals waveguides by use of the plasma dispersion effect," Opt. Lett. 30, 2254-2256 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

2004 (5)

K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. B. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, Photonic Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[Crossref]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. Hermann, and K. Busch, "Tunable photonic crystal circuits: concepts and designs based on single-pore infiltration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2858-2860 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Ikeda, "Photomodulation of liquid crystal orientations for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037-2057 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Legge and G. R. Mitchell, "Photo-induced phase transitions in azobenzene-doped liquid crystals," J. Phys. D 25, 492-499 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

M. Plihal and A. A. Maradudin, "Photonic band structure of two-dimensional systems: the triangular lattice," Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565-8571 (1991).
[Crossref]

Anand, S.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anderson, S. P.

M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asakawa, K.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H.

Awazu, K.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barrett, C. J.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, "Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 250-261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

Berger, V.

J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

Bettotti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Broer, D.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brugioni, S.

Bunning, T.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, K.

Carlström, C.-F.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B.

X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cojocaru, C.

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dunbar, L. A.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faetti, S.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferrini, R.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
[Crossref]

Föll, H.

K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. B. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, Photonic Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fujishima, A.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gérard, J. M.

J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

Gu, Z.-Z.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hagen, R.

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hermann, D.

Hirano, S.

J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hodson, T.

Hong, M. H.

S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Houdré, R.

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B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
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Raj, R.

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B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
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J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
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J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
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A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
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S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
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K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
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T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
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J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

Teo, S. H. G.

S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toulouse, J.

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, O.

J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
[Crossref]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Urbas, A.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Drift, E.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der Heijden, R.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der Heijden, R. W.

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Viktorovitch, P.

Wang, X.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, A.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. B. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, Photonic Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wild, B.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Witzens, J.

B. Maune, J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Kolodrubetz, H. Atwater, A. Scherer, R. Hagen, and Y. Qiu, "Optically triggered Q-switched photonic crystal laser," Opt. Express 13, 4699-4707 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yager, K. G.

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, "Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 250-261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zabelin, V.

Zanzucchi, P.

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, S. McBride, and P. Zanzucchi, "Modulating dispersion properties of low index photonic crystal structures using microfluidics," Proc. SPIE 6128, 61280W-1 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. B.

S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zuppiroli, L.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Ferrini, J. Martz, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, V. Zabelin, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Planar photonic crystals infiltrated with liquid crystals: tuning and optical characterization of molecule orientation," Opt. Lett. 31, 1238-1240 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

B. Maune, M. Loncar, J. Witzens, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, D. Psaltis, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Liquid-crystal electric tuning of a photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 360-362 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Haurylau, S. P. Anderson, K. L. Marshall, and P. M. Fauchet, "Electrical modulation of silicon-based two-dimensional photonic bandgap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 061103 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. van der Heijden, C.-F. Carlström, J. Snijders, R. W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H. Salemink,C. Kjellander, C. Bastiaansen, D. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161112 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. H. G. Teo, A. Q. Liu, J. B. Zhang, and M. H. Hong, "Induced free carrier modulation of photonic crystal optical intersection via localized optical absorption effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091910 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, Y. Liu, J. Tian, B. Cheng, and D. Zhang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in two-dimensional organic photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121102 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Tanabe, K. Nishiguchi, A. Shinya, E. Kuramochi, H. Inokawa, M. Notomi, K. Yamada, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, and H. Fukuda, "Fast all-optical switching using ion-implanted silicon photonic crystal nanocavities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 031115 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

J.-H. Sung, S. Hirano, O. Tsutsumi, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, "Dynamics of photochemical phase transition of guest/host liquid crystals with an azobenzene derivative as a photoresponsive chromophore," Chem. Mater. 14, 385-391 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, "Control of the optical properties of liquid crystal-infiltrated inverse opal structures using photo irradiation and/or an electric field," Chem. Mater. 17, 2298-2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, M. Mulot, M. Qiu, J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Anand, and R. Houdré, "Optical study of two-dimensional InP-based photonic crystals by internal light source technique," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 786-799 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Urbas, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, R. Sutherland, H. Yu, J.-H. Li, and T. Bunning, "Optically switchable liquid crystal photonic structures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 13580-13581 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L. A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

T. Ikeda, "Photomodulation of liquid crystal orientations for photonic applications," J. Mater. Chem. 13, 2037-2057 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

K. G. Yager and C. J. Barrett, "Novel photo-switching using azobenzene functional materials," J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 182, 250-261 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

C. H. Legge and G. R. Mitchell, "Photo-induced phase transitions in azobenzene-doped liquid crystals," J. Phys. D 25, 492-499 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Mulot, R. Ferrini, B. Wild, J. Moosburger, A. Forchel, R. Houdré, and S. Anand, "Fabrication of 2D InP-based photonic crystals by chlorine based chemically assisted ion beam etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 707-709 (2004).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

K. Asakawa, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, N. Ozaki, A. Mizutani, Y. Takata, Y. Kitagawa, H. Ishikawa, N. Ikeda, K. Awazu, X. Wang, A. Watanabe, S. Nakamura, S. Ohkouchi, K. Inoue, M. Kristensen, O. Sigmund, P. Ingo Borel, and R. Baets, "Photonic crystal and quantum dot technologies for all-optical switch and logic device," New J. Phys. 8, 208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Plihal and A. A. Maradudin, "Photonic band structure of two-dimensional systems: the triangular lattice," Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565-8571 (1991).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, D. W. Prather, S. McBride, and P. Zanzucchi, "Modulating dispersion properties of low index photonic crystal structures using microfluidics," Proc. SPIE 6128, 61280W-1 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

K. Busch, S. Lölkes, R. B. Wehrspohn, and H. Föll, Photonic Crystals (Wiley-VCH, 2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Lourtioz, H. Benisty, V. Berger, J. M. Gérard, D. Maystre, and A. Tchelnokov, Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Chemical structures of the host nematic liquid crystal LC-K15 [4-cyano- 4 -pentylbiphenyl (5CB)] and of the trans and cis molecular forms of the guest azobenzene derivative [4-butyl- 4 -methoxyazobenzene (BMAB)]. (b) Measured absorption spectra of the trans (full curve) and cis (broken curve) forms of the BMAB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase diagram of the LC-K15/BMAB mixture as a function of the BMAB mole fraction ρ (the values are for the “bulk” azo-LC system and are taken from [20]). The shape of the molecules present in the mixture and the resulting molecular order are sketched. (a) 100% of the BMAB molecules are in the trans form, and (b) 100% of the BMAB molecules are in the cis form; the shaded region is the biphasic region predicted by the theory of Humphries and Luckhurst [20]. (c) The photostationary state after white light irradiation. T NI , T NI * , and T NI ( PS ) are the corresponding nematic–isotropic transition temperatures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complete phase diagram of the LC-K15/BMAB mixture. The photostationary region is hashed. The experimental conditions chosen for the infiltration and the optical tuning of PhCs are indicated (black squares).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscopy. (a) Cut view of a PhC etched through a In P ( Ga , In ) ( As , P ) In P planar waveguide [the GaInAsP core layer is sketched (dashed lines)]; the hole depth is d 4 μ m . The white arrows indicate the orientation of the electric field for TE and TM polarization directions. (b) Top view of an eight-rows-thick Γ M -oriented PhC slab ( a = lattice period, D = hole diameter). (c) Top view of a Fabry–Perot cavity between two four-rows-thick Γ M -oriented PhC mirrors ( W = cavity width).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Irradiation procedure. The transmission through the infiltrated photonic crystals was measured after each step.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured TE transmission spectra through a Fabry–Perot cavity ( W a = 1.8 , a = 380 nm ) between two four-rows-thick Γ M -oriented PhC mirrors infiltrated with LC-K15/BMAB mixture ( ρ = 2.2 % ) , before (gray curves) and after irradiation with UV (dotted curves) and visible light (dashed curve), at (a) 24 ° C and (b) 30 ° C (corresponding to points C and B in Fig. 3, respectively). The spectrum corresponding to the thermal isotropic state at T = 37 ° C (point A in Fig. 3) is represented as reference (black curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured TE transmission spectra through a Fabry–Perot cavity ( W a = 1.8 , a = 380 nm ) between two four-rows-thick Γ M -oriented PhC mirrors infiltrated with LC-K15/BMAB mixture ( ρ = 3.2 % ) , before (gray curves) and after irradiation with UV (dotted curves) and visible light (dashed curve), at (a) 24 ° C and (b) 30 ° C (corresponding to points F and E in Fig. 3, respectively). The spectrum corresponding to the thermal isotropic state at T = 37 ° C (point D in Fig. 3) is represented as reference (black curve).

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