Abstract

We have studied double-resonance optical pumping (DROP) as a function of the polarization combination of lasers, laser power, and the alignment of lasers in the 5S125P32D32,52 ladder-type system of Rb87 atoms. By considering the two-photon transition probability and optical pumping effects, the changes in the relative magnitude of the DROP hyperfine structures as a function of the polarization combination of the lasers were analyzed theoretically. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. Owing to the low optical pumping effect in the cycling transition, we could see the dependence of the spectrum on the laser power in the 5P324D52 transition distinctly. Also, the spectral linewidths as a function of the alignment between the lasers were measured 12.2MHz for copropagating beams and 6.9MHz for counterpropagating beams.

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References

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  1. W. C. Magno, R. L. Cavasso Filho, and F. C. Cruz, "Two-photon Doppler cooling of alkaline-earth-metal and ytterbium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043407 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Ohmukai, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, "Isotope-selected measurements of the velocity-controlled Yb atomic beam," Appl. Phys. B 64, 547-551 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. H. Yoon, C. Y. Park, and S. J. Park, "Laser-induced birefringence in a wavelength-mismatched cascade system of inhomogeneously broadened Yb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061803(R) (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. C. Chung and C. B. Roxlo, "Frequency-locking of a 1.5 μm DFB laser to an atomic krypton line using optogalvanic effect," Electron. Lett. 24, 1048-1049 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Lucero, Y. C. Chung, S. Reilly, and R. W. Tkach, "Saturation measurements of excited-state transitions in noble gases using the optogalvanic effect," Opt. Lett. 16, 849-852 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).
  7. J. Brossel and F. Bitter, "A new double resonance method for investigating atomic energy levels. Application to Hg 3P1*," Phys. Rev. 86, 308-316 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. T. Vituccio, O. Golonzka, and W. E. Ernst, "Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy of the A-X and B-X systems of Na3," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 184, 237-249 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Sasada, "Wavelength measurements of the sub-Doppler spectral lines of Rb at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1307-1309 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. L. Gilbert, "Frequency stabilization of a fiber laser to rubidium: a high-accuracy 1.53 μm wavelength standard," in Frequency Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. SPIE 1837, 146-153 (1992).
  11. M. Breton, N. Cyr, P. Tremblay, M. Têtu, and R. Boucher, "Frequency locking of a 1324 nm DFB laser to an optically pumped rubidium vapor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 162-166 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, and B. Villeneuve, "Observation and characterization of Rb87 resonances for frequency-locking purpose of a 1.53 μm DFB laser," in Frequency Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. SPIE 1837, 134-143 (1992).
  13. M. Breton, P. Tremblay, C. Julien, N. Cyr, M. Têtu, and C. Latrasse, "Optically pumped rubidium as a frequency standard at 196 THz," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 162-165 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, "Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3965-3967 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, 1990).

2004 (2)

T. H. Yoon, C. Y. Park, and S. J. Park, "Laser-induced birefringence in a wavelength-mismatched cascade system of inhomogeneously broadened Yb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061803(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, "Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3965-3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. C. Magno, R. L. Cavasso Filho, and F. C. Cruz, "Two-photon Doppler cooling of alkaline-earth-metal and ytterbium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Ohmukai, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, "Isotope-selected measurements of the velocity-controlled Yb atomic beam," Appl. Phys. B 64, 547-551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Vituccio, O. Golonzka, and W. E. Ernst, "Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy of the A-X and B-X systems of Na3," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 184, 237-249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, C. Julien, N. Cyr, M. Têtu, and C. Latrasse, "Optically pumped rubidium as a frequency standard at 196 THz," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 162-165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Breton, N. Cyr, P. Tremblay, M. Têtu, and R. Boucher, "Frequency locking of a 1324 nm DFB laser to an optically pumped rubidium vapor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 162-166 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Sasada, "Wavelength measurements of the sub-Doppler spectral lines of Rb at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1307-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

Y. C. Chung and C. B. Roxlo, "Frequency-locking of a 1.5 μm DFB laser to an atomic krypton line using optogalvanic effect," Electron. Lett. 24, 1048-1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

J. Brossel and F. Bitter, "A new double resonance method for investigating atomic energy levels. Application to Hg 3P1*," Phys. Rev. 86, 308-316 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Ohmukai, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, U. Tanaka, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, "Isotope-selected measurements of the velocity-controlled Yb atomic beam," Appl. Phys. B 64, 547-551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. S. Moon, W. K. Lee, L. Lee, and J. B. Kim, "Double resonance optical pumping spectrum and its application for frequency stabilization of a laser diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3965-3967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Chung and C. B. Roxlo, "Frequency-locking of a 1.5 μm DFB laser to an atomic krypton line using optogalvanic effect," Electron. Lett. 24, 1048-1049 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Sasada, "Wavelength measurements of the sub-Doppler spectral lines of Rb at 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1307-1309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2)

M. Breton, N. Cyr, P. Tremblay, M. Têtu, and R. Boucher, "Frequency locking of a 1324 nm DFB laser to an optically pumped rubidium vapor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 42, 162-166 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, C. Julien, N. Cyr, M. Têtu, and C. Latrasse, "Optically pumped rubidium as a frequency standard at 196 THz," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 162-165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

D. T. Vituccio, O. Golonzka, and W. E. Ernst, "Optical-optical double resonance spectroscopy of the A-X and B-X systems of Na3," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 184, 237-249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Brossel and F. Bitter, "A new double resonance method for investigating atomic energy levels. Application to Hg 3P1*," Phys. Rev. 86, 308-316 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

W. C. Magno, R. L. Cavasso Filho, and F. C. Cruz, "Two-photon Doppler cooling of alkaline-earth-metal and ytterbium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 67, 043407 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Yoon, C. Y. Park, and S. J. Park, "Laser-induced birefringence in a wavelength-mismatched cascade system of inhomogeneously broadened Yb atoms," Phys. Rev. A 70, 061803(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

S. L. Gilbert, "Frequency stabilization of a fiber laser to rubidium: a high-accuracy 1.53 μm wavelength standard," in Frequency Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. SPIE 1837, 146-153 (1992).

M. Breton, P. Tremblay, N. Cyr, C. Julien, M. Têtu, and B. Villeneuve, "Observation and characterization of Rb87 resonances for frequency-locking purpose of a 1.53 μm DFB laser," in Frequency Stabilized Lasers and Their Applications, Proc. SPIE 1837, 134-143 (1992).

B. W. Shore, The Theory of Coherent Atomic Excitation (Wiley, 1990).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schemes of the ladder-type atomic system for DROP in a five-level atomic system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy diagram of the 5 S 1 2 5 P 3 2 4 D 3 2 and 4 D 5 2 transitions of Rb 87 atoms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setups for investigating the influence of the polarization combination of the lasers on the DROP of Rb 87 . DCF, dielectric coated filter; AP, aperture; HWP, half-wave plate; QWP, quarter-wave plates; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, Si photodiode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical DROP spectrum of the 5 S 1 2 5 P 3 2 4 D 3 2 and 4 D 5 2 transitions of Rb 87 atoms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured DROP spectra as a function of the combinations of the L 2 laser’s polarizations in the 5 P 3 2 ( F = 3 ) 4 D 3 2 ( F = 2 , 3 ) transition of Rb 87 . (b) The simulated absorption spectra considering the two-photon transition probability and optical pumping.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Possible transition probabilities in the case of the π linearly polarized L 1 laser. (a) The 5 S 1 2 ( F = 2 ) 5 P 3 2 ( F = 3 ) 4 D 3 2 ( F = 3 ) transition; (b) the 5 S 1 2 ( F = 2 ) 5 P 3 2 ( F = 3 ) 4 D 3 2 ( F = 2 ) transition.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Measured DROP spectra as a function of the L 2 laser’s power in the 5 P 3 2 4 D 3 2 transition of Rb 87 . (b) The spectral width as a function of the L 2 laser’s power. (c) The magnitude of the DROP spectrum as a function of the L 2 laser’s power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Measured DROP spectra as a function of the L 2 laser’s power in the 5 P 3 2 4 D 5 2 transition of Rb 87 . (b) The spectral width as a function of the L 2 laser’s power. (c) The magnitude of the DROP spectrum as a function of the L 2 laser’s power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

DROP spectra as a function of the alignment of the two laser beams in the cases of counterpropagating beams and copropagating beams. (Black curve: the case of the copropagation configuration; gray curve: the case of the counterpropagation configuration).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Experimental Results with the Theoretical Results for the DROP Spectra as a Function of the Combinations of the L 2 Laser’s Polarizations in the 5 P 3 2 ( F = 3 ) 4 D 3 2 ( F = 2 , 3 ) Transition of Rb 87 a

Equations (3)

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A F ( 1 + D ( γ F F ) ) m m , m m ( d m m 2 d m m 2 ) ,
D ( γ F F ) = R F ( γ F F Γ F γ F F Γ F ) ,
Γ co = ω 2 ω 1 ( Γ 1 + Δ L 1 ) + ( Γ 1 + Γ 2 + Δ L 2 ) ,

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