Abstract

Dynamics of electron-trapping materials (ETMs) is investigated. Based on experimental observations, evolution of the ETM’s luminescence is mathematically modeled by a nonlinear differential equation. This improved model can predict dynamics of ETM under blue light and near-infrared (NIR) exposures during charging, discharging, simultaneous illumination, and in the equilibrium state. The equilibrium-state luminescence of ETM is used to realize a highly nonlinear optical device with potential applications in nonlinear optical signal processing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Lindmayer, "A new erasable optical memory," Solid State Technol. 31, 135-138 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).
  3. S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 1: parallel Boolean logic," Appl. Opt. 29, 4806-4811 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical dynamic matched filtering with electron trapping devices," in Real-Time Signal Processing XI, J.P.Letellier, ed., Proc. SPIE 977, 271-276 (1988).
  5. S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 2: two-dimensional associative memory," Appl. Opt. 30, 2879-2884 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 3: modified Hopfield type neural networks," Appl. Opt. 30, 1786-1790 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical orthogonal neural network associative memory with luminescence rebroadcasting devices," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Proc. IEEE1989) pp. 483-485.
  8. F. Itoh, K. Kitayama, and Y. Tamura, "Optical outer-product learning in a neural network using optically stimulable phosphor," Opt. Lett. 15, 860-862 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).
  10. P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).
  11. S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Wen and N. Farhat, "Dynamics of electron trapping materials for use in optoelectronic neurocomputing," Appl. Opt. 32, 7251-7265 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Z. Wen, N. Farhat, "Electron trapping materials and electron-beam-addressed electron trapping material material devices: an improved model," Appl. Opt. 34, 5188-5198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. The electron-trapping material used for this investigation was furnished by the former Quantex Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
  16. Z. Hua, L. Salamanca-Riba, M. Wuttig, and P. K. Soltani, "Temperature dependence of photoluminescence in SrS:Eu2+,Sm3+ thin films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1464-1469 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, available online at http://www.stanford.edu/boyd/cvxbook.html (Cambridge U. Press, 2004).
  18. R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Optical realization of the retinal ganglion receptive fields in electron-trapping material thin film," in Proceedings of 32nd Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Realization of receptive fields with excitatory and inhibitory responses on the equilibrium-state luminescence of electron trapping material thin film," Opt. Lett. 32, 1501-1503 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Engineering (Da Capo Press, 1994).
  21. D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Kaneko, "Overview of coupled map lattices," Chaos 2, pp. 279-282 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. N. H. Farhat, "Corticonics: the way to designing machines with brain-like intelligence," Proc. SPIE 4109, 103-109 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. H. Farhat, "Corticonic networks for higher-level processing," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Association of Science and Technology for Development International Conference (ACTA, 2004), pp. 256-262.

2007 (1)

2003 (1)

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

N. H. Farhat, "Corticonics: the way to designing machines with brain-like intelligence," Proc. SPIE 4109, 103-109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

1992 (2)

X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Kaneko, "Overview of coupled map lattices," Chaos 2, pp. 279-282 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (5)

F. Itoh, K. Kitayama, and Y. Tamura, "Optical outer-product learning in a neural network using optically stimulable phosphor," Opt. Lett. 15, 860-862 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).

P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).

J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).

S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 1: parallel Boolean logic," Appl. Opt. 29, 4806-4811 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. Lindmayer, "A new erasable optical memory," Solid State Technol. 31, 135-138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, S.

S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, available online at http://www.stanford.edu/boyd/cvxbook.html (Cambridge U. Press, 2004).

Brower, D.

P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).

Cheroff, G.

S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, D.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, W. M.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, N.

Farhat, N. H.

R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Realization of receptive fields with excitatory and inhibitory responses on the equilibrium-state luminescence of electron trapping material thin film," Opt. Lett. 32, 1501-1503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Farhat, "Corticonics: the way to designing machines with brain-like intelligence," Proc. SPIE 4109, 103-109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Farhat, "Corticonic networks for higher-level processing," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Association of Science and Technology for Development International Conference (ACTA, 2004), pp. 256-262.

R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Optical realization of the retinal ganglion receptive fields in electron-trapping material thin film," in Proceedings of 32nd Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldmith, P.

J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).

Gross, K.

J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).

Hua, Z.

Itoh, F.

Jutamuli, S.

Jutamulia, S.

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).

Kaneko, K.

K. Kaneko, "Overview of coupled map lattices," Chaos 2, pp. 279-282 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, S.

S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Lindmayer, J.

X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 2: two-dimensional associative memory," Appl. Opt. 30, 2879-2884 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 3: modified Hopfield type neural networks," Appl. Opt. 30, 1786-1790 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamuli, G. Stori, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Use of electron trapping materials in optical signal processing. 1: parallel Boolean logic," Appl. Opt. 29, 4806-4811 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).

J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).

J. Lindmayer, "A new erasable optical memory," Solid State Technol. 31, 135-138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ma, C. T.

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical orthogonal neural network associative memory with luminescence rebroadcasting devices," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Proc. IEEE1989) pp. 483-485.

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical dynamic matched filtering with electron trapping devices," in Real-Time Signal Processing XI, J.P.Letellier, ed., Proc. SPIE 977, 271-276 (1988).

Mapes, J.

S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
[CrossRef]

McAulay, A. D.

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical orthogonal neural network associative memory with luminescence rebroadcasting devices," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Proc. IEEE1989) pp. 483-485.

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical dynamic matched filtering with electron trapping devices," in Real-Time Signal Processing XI, J.P.Letellier, ed., Proc. SPIE 977, 271-276 (1988).

Pashaie, R.

R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Realization of receptive fields with excitatory and inhibitory responses on the equilibrium-state luminescence of electron trapping material thin film," Opt. Lett. 32, 1501-1503 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Optical realization of the retinal ganglion receptive fields in electron-trapping material thin film," in Proceedings of 32nd Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Salamanca-Riba, L.

Seiderman, W.

Slaughter, J.

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, P.

P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).

Soltani, P. K.

Stori, G.

Storti, G.

P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).

Strogatz, S. H.

S. H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Engineering (Da Capo Press, 1994).

Tamura, Y.

Vandenberghe, L.

S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, available online at http://www.stanford.edu/boyd/cvxbook.html (Cambridge U. Press, 2004).

Wang, J.

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical dynamic matched filtering with electron trapping devices," in Real-Time Signal Processing XI, J.P.Letellier, ed., Proc. SPIE 977, 271-276 (1988).

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical orthogonal neural network associative memory with luminescence rebroadcasting devices," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Proc. IEEE1989) pp. 483-485.

Wen, Z.

Wrigley, C. Y.

X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wuttig, M.

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Chaos (1)

K. Kaneko, "Overview of coupled map lattices," Chaos 2, pp. 279-282 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Technol. Rev. (1)

J. Lindmayer, P. Goldmith, and K. Gross, "Electron-trapping optical technology--memory's next generation," Comput. Technol. Rev. 10, 37-42 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

S. Keller, J. Mapes, and G. Cheroff, "Studies on some infrared stimulable phosphors," Phys. Rev. 108, 663-676 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

S. Jutamulia, G. Storti, J. Lindmayer, and W. Seiderman, "Optical information processing systems and architectures," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1151, 83 (1990).

P. Soltani, D. Brower, and G. Storti, "Electron image tubes and image intensifiers," Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1243, 114 (1990).

Proc. SPIE (3)

X. Yang, C. Y. Wrigley, and J. Lindmayer, "Three-dimensional optical memory based on transparent electron thin film," Proc. SPIE 1773, 413-422 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Dudley, W. M. Duncan, and J. Slaughter, "Emerging digital micromirror device (DMD) applications," Proc. SPIE 4985, 14-25 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Farhat, "Corticonics: the way to designing machines with brain-like intelligence," Proc. SPIE 4109, 103-109 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Technol. (1)

J. Lindmayer, "A new erasable optical memory," Solid State Technol. 31, 135-138 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical dynamic matched filtering with electron trapping devices," in Real-Time Signal Processing XI, J.P.Letellier, ed., Proc. SPIE 977, 271-276 (1988).

A. D. McAulay, J. Wang, and C. T. Ma, "Optical orthogonal neural network associative memory with luminescence rebroadcasting devices," in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks (Proc. IEEE1989) pp. 483-485.

The electron-trapping material used for this investigation was furnished by the former Quantex Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

S. H. Strogatz, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos: With Applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Engineering (Da Capo Press, 1994).

S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization, available online at http://www.stanford.edu/boyd/cvxbook.html (Cambridge U. Press, 2004).

R. Pashaie and N. H. Farhat, "Optical realization of the retinal ganglion receptive fields in electron-trapping material thin film," in Proceedings of 32nd Northeast Bioengineering Conference (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Farhat, "Corticonic networks for higher-level processing," in Proceedings of the 2nd International Association of Science and Technology for Development International Conference (ACTA, 2004), pp. 256-262.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical mechanism of charging and discharging of ETM. Interaction of blue photons and electrons of the valence band excites the electrons and sends them to the communication band. Those excited electrons will tunnel to the trap level and become trapped electrons. Infrared photons give sufficient energy to the trapped electrons to detrap and excite them to the communication energy level. These electrons release their extra energy in the form of orange luminescence during their return to the valence band.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup used for investigation of the ETM’s dynamics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Charging characteristic curves of the partially erased ETM under blue light illumination. Three points should be considered in the study of these curves: the initial jumps (at t = 0.0 ), the relatively linear buildup in the initial moments, and the final saturations. The solid curves are the experimental results, and the circles are the curve-fitting data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Saturation levels of the partially erased ETM as a function of the charging blue light intensity and the corresponding linear approximation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Charging of the partially erased ETM by constant blue light illumination. (a) Despite different initial density of trapped electrons, all the curves merge to the same saturation level. (b) Different initial jumps under constant blue light illumination.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Levels of the initial jumps as a function of the intensity of the blue light when the initial density of the trapped electrons is constant. The experimental data can be approximated by a linear function. (b) The levels of the initial jumps as a function of the initial trapped-electron density when the intensity of the incident charging blue light is constant. Again, the experimental data can be approximated by a linear function.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Discharging characteristic curves of the ETM. The discharging process has two separable phases. In the first phase, the intensity of the orange light emission drops rapidly after an abrupt jump. During the second phase, the intensity of the orange light emission decreases slowly.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Levels of the initial jumps as a function of the discharging NIR light intensity. A linear function can be fitted to the experimental results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of temperature on the intensity of the emitted orange light when the ETM is under simultaneous blue light and NIR light illumination. This curve proves that at lower temperatures, the orange light emission is more intense.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ESP of electron-trapping material and the behavior of the ETM luminescence in the equilibrium state.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Optical setup. A light source illuminates the optical device and a detector measures the intensity of the light that passes through the optical device. (b) Available and desired response curves.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Two sample LCL and their dynamic ranges along the blue light intensity axis in the ESP of the ETM. Only the intensities of the emitted orange light along the LCLs are accessible when the light sources are linearly coupled. (b) The corresponding nonlinear curves.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Two LCLs with the same dynamic range. The termination points of each of these LCLs are located on the same contour. (b) The intensities of the emitted orange light along two LCLs that are depicted in Fig. 14a.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Parallel LCLs. All the terminating points are on the same contour. (b) The crresponding nonlinear curves. This type of nonlinear curve can be used in the optical generation of one-dimensional maps.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Two LCLs for the generation of the quasi-linear curves. (b) The corresponding quasi-linear curves.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental results. Along the first two LCLs, which have negative slopes, (see text) the luminescence of the material changes nonlinearly. Along the third LCL, which has positive slope, the luminescence of the material is quasi-linear.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Effect of changing the area of the ETM under illumination. The nonlinear curves are related to the third LCL in Fig. 13a. The area changes from A = 3 mm 2 to 16 × A .

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Simultaneous illumination of ETM panel with the combined beam of two DMD spatial light modulators. (TIR stands for total internal reflection.)

Equations (19)

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n ( t ) = n s ( I B ) ξ I B L n ( η t + t s + 1 ) .
n ( t ) = ξ I NIR L n ( η t + t s + 1 ) ,
I O ( t ) = α n ( t ) I B + β n ( t ) I NIR ,
n ̇ = d n d t = ξ I B η [ exp ( n s n ξ I B ) 1 ] 2 exp ( n s n ξ I B ) .
η t + t s = exp ( n s n ξ I B ) 1 .
n ̇ = d n d t = ξ I NIR η [ exp ( n ξ I NIR ) 1 ] 2 exp ( n ξ I NIR ) ,
η t + t s = exp ( n ξ I NIR ) 1 .
t s = η exp ( n s n ξ I B ) 1 ,
t s = η exp ( n ξ I NIR ) 1 .
n ̇ = 4 ξ η I B sinh 2 ( n s n 2 ξ I B ) ,
n ̇ = 4 ξ η I NIR sinh 2 ( n 2 ξ I NIR ) .
n ̇ = 4 ξ η I B sinh 2 ( n s n 2 ξ I B ) 4 ξ η I NIR sinh 2 ( n 2 ξ I NIR ) .
4 ξ η I B sinh 2 ( n s n * 2 ξ I B ) = 4 ξ η I NIR sinh 2 ( n * 2 ξ I NIR ) ,
I O * = α n * I B + β n * I NIR .
er f ( n * ) = 4 ξ η I B sinh 2 ( n s n * 2 ξ I B ) 4 ξ η I NIR sinh 2 ( n * 2 ξ I NIR ) .
μ I B + ν I NIR = σ ,
LCL - 1 : 0.14 I B + I NIR = 12.0 ,
LCL - 2 : 0.18 I B + I NIR = 11.0 ,
LCL - 3 : + 0.05 I B + I NIR = 0.0 .

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