Abstract

We describe the spontaneous photoinduced patterning of azo-dye polymer films. We have observed that the illumination of an azo-dye polymer film by a uniform single laser beam with normal incidence leads to a self-structurization process that results in the formation of well-ordered submicrometer-sized structures whose organization depends on the light polarization direction. A modulation depth as high as 100nm can be achieved. The influence of several experimental parameters on the structure formation is studied. Results are discussed and confronted to different models and phenomena already investigated in the literature. A physical origin to this peculiar photopatterning process is proposed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Rau, "Photoisomerization of azobenzenes," in Photochemistry and Photophysics--Vol III, J.F.Rabeck, eds. (CRC Press, 1990), pp. 119-141.
  2. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, and T. Tomova, "Polarization holography: a new high-efficiency organic material with reversible photoinduced birefringence," Appl. Opt. 23, 4309-4312 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Jones and S. Day, "Shedding light on alignment," Nature 15, 351 (1991).
  4. R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).
  15. E. Guyon, J. O. Hulin, and L. Petit, Hydrodynamique Physique (CNRS, 2001).
  16. S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, "Stimulated Wood's anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384-1403 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Bolle and S. Lazare, "Characterization of submicrometer periodic surface structures produced on polymer surfaces with low-fluence ultraviolet laser radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516-3524 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. E. Dyer and R. J. Farley, "Dynamics of laser-induced periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with polarized excimer laser ultraviolet radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1442-1444 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. D'Allessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. J. Firth, "Pattern formation in passive nonlinear optical systems," in Self-Organization in Optical Systems and Applications to Information Technology, M.A.Vorontsov, and W.B.Miller, eds. (Springer, 1995), pp. 69-96.
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. J. Firth, "Spatial instabilities in a Kerr medium with single feedback mirror," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 151-153 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, and C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, "Photo-induction of surface relief gratings during all-optical poling of polymer films," Opt. Lett. 29, 98-100 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).
  26. C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).
  27. S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

2007 (1)

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

2006 (2)

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, and C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, "Photo-induction of surface relief gratings during all-optical poling of polymer films," Opt. Lett. 29, 98-100 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, "Characterization of submicrometer periodic surface structures produced on polymer surfaces with low-fluence ultraviolet laser radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516-3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer and R. J. Farley, "Dynamics of laser-induced periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with polarized excimer laser ultraviolet radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1442-1444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. D'Allessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Jones and S. Day, "Shedding light on alignment," Nature 15, 351 (1991).

1990 (1)

W. J. Firth, "Spatial instabilities in a Kerr medium with single feedback mirror," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 151-153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, "Stimulated Wood's anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384-1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Ackermann, J.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi Kandjani, S.

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

Apostoluk, A.

Balasubramanian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barille, R.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrett, C. J.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, B.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, M.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, "Characterization of submicrometer periodic surface structures produced on polymer surfaces with low-fluence ultraviolet laser radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516-3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dabos-Seignon, S.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Allessandro, G.

G. D'Allessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Day, S.

C. Jones and S. Day, "Shedding light on alignment," Nature 15, 351 (1991).

Delaire, J. A.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dhinojwala, A.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dumas, Ph.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer and R. J. Farley, "Dynamics of laser-induced periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with polarized excimer laser ultraviolet radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1442-1444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer and R. J. Farley, "Dynamics of laser-induced periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with polarized excimer laser ultraviolet radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1442-1444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, "Stimulated Wood's anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384-1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, and C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, "Photo-induction of surface relief gratings during all-optical poling of polymer films," Opt. Lett. 29, 98-100 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).

Firth, W. J.

G. D'Allessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Firth, "Spatial instabilities in a Kerr medium with single feedback mirror," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 151-153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Firth, "Pattern formation in passive nonlinear optical systems," in Self-Organization in Optical Systems and Applications to Information Technology, M.A.Vorontsov, and W.B.Miller, eds. (Springer, 1995), pp. 69-96.
[CrossRef]

Grave, Ch.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, E.

E. Guyon, J. O. Hulin, and L. Petit, Hydrodynamique Physique (CNRS, 2001).

Hall, D. B.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, C.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).

Hulin, J. O.

E. Guyon, J. O. Hulin, and L. Petit, Hydrodynamique Physique (CNRS, 2001).

Jiang, X. L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jones, C.

C. Jones and S. Day, "Shedding light on alignment," Nature 15, 351 (1991).

Kandjani, S. Ahmadi

Kim, D. Y.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, H.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Kucharski, S.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, J.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lazare, S.

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, "Characterization of submicrometer periodic surface structures produced on polymer surfaces with low-fluence ultraviolet laser radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516-3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. S.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lefin, P.

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loucif-Saibi, R.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maurin, I.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

Nakatani, K.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Nunzi, J. M.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).

Nunzi, J.-M.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

A. Apostoluk, J.-M. Nunzi, and C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, "Photo-induction of surface relief gratings during all-optical poling of polymer films," Opt. Lett. 29, 98-100 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortyl, E.

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "Incoherent light-induced self-organization of molecules," Opt. Lett. 30, 3177-3179 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, L.

E. Guyon, J. O. Hulin, and L. Petit, Hydrodynamique Physique (CNRS, 2001).

Raimond, P.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).

Rau, H.

H. Rau, "Photoisomerization of azobenzenes," in Photochemistry and Photophysics--Vol III, J.F.Rabeck, eds. (CRC Press, 1990), pp. 119-141.

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Safarov, V.

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shivshankar, V.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, "Stimulated Wood's anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384-1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

Todorov, T.

Tomova, T.

Torkelson, J. M.

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, I. Maurin, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Spontaneous patterning of hexagonal structures in an azo-polymer using light-controlled mass transport," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 14, 729-732 (2002)..
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Kumar, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, D. Y. Kim, T. S. Lee, and S. K. Tripathy, "Gradient force: the mechanism for surface relief grating formation in azobenzene functionalized polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2096-2098 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, "Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in disperse red 1-doped and functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films," Chem. Mater. 5, 229-236 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman and P. M. Fauchet, "Stimulated Wood's anomalies on laser-illuminated surfaces," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 1384-1403 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Bolle and S. Lazare, "Characterization of submicrometer periodic surface structures produced on polymer surfaces with low-fluence ultraviolet laser radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3516-3524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer and R. J. Farley, "Dynamics of laser-induced periodic structures produced on polymer surfaces with polarized excimer laser ultraviolet radiation," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1442-1444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, and P. L. Rochon, "Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films," J. Chem. Phys. 100, 8836-8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. J. Firth, "Spatial instabilities in a Kerr medium with single feedback mirror," J. Mod. Opt. 37, 151-153 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

N. K. Viswanathan, S. Balasubramanian, L. Li, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface-initiated mechanism for the formation of relief gratings on azo-polymer films," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 6064-6070 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

B. Bellini, J. Ackermann, H. Klein, Ch. Grave, Ph. Dumas, and V. Safarov, "Light-induced molecular motion of azobenzene-containing molecules: a random walk model," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S1817-S1835 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, "Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymers films," Macromolecules 28, 8835-8839 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. Ahmadi Kandjani, R. Barille, E. Ortyl, S. Dabos-Seignon, S. Kucharski, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Self-induced diffraction grating storage in polymer films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 446, 99-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. Jones and S. Day, "Shedding light on alignment," Nature 15, 351 (1991).

Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. (2)

S. Ahmadi-Kandjani, R. Barille, S. Dabos-Seignon, J.-M. Nunzi, E. Ortyl, and S. Kucharski, "The light polarization control of self-organized surface relief gratings in an azo-polymer," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 36, 217-227 (2007).

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, P. Raimond, J.-M. Nunzi, J.-J. Simon, and L. Escoubas, "Spontaneous photoinduced structuration of the surface of azo-benzene polymer films by the molecular migration effect," Nonlinear Opt., Quantum Opt. 31, 221-230 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Lefin, C. Fiorini, and J. M. Nunzi, "Anisotropy of the photoinduced translation diffusion of azo-dyes," Opt. Mater. 9, 323-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. D'Allessandro and W. J. Firth, "Spontaneous hexagon formation in a nonlinear optical medium with feedback mirror," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2597-2600 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hall, A. Dhinojwala, and J. M. Torkelson, "Translation-rotation paradox for diffusion in glass forming polymers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 103-106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

C. Hubert, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Procédé de fabrication de structures périodiques bi-dimensionnelles en milieu polymère," patent 05762341.5-2222-FR2005001001 (2005).

E. Guyon, J. O. Hulin, and L. Petit, Hydrodynamique Physique (CNRS, 2001).

W. J. Firth, "Pattern formation in passive nonlinear optical systems," in Self-Organization in Optical Systems and Applications to Information Technology, M.A.Vorontsov, and W.B.Miller, eds. (Springer, 1995), pp. 69-96.
[CrossRef]

H. Rau, "Photoisomerization of azobenzenes," in Photochemistry and Photophysics--Vol III, J.F.Rabeck, eds. (CRC Press, 1990), pp. 119-141.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM images ( 7 μ m × 7 μ m ) of photoinduced structures recorded with different incident laser beam polarizations: (a) vertical and (b) circular. Sample thickness was (a) 220 nm and (b) 350 nm . Laser beam intensity was 300 mW cm 2 . Irradiation times were (a) 100 min and (b) 80 min .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic growth of the structures for different irradiation intensities. Thickness of the polymer film was 350 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM images of the photoinduced structures obtained following different irradiation intensities. Irradiation times and intensities were respectively equal to 90 min and 50 mW cm 2 (left), and 100 min and 300 mW cm 2 (right). Film thickness was 300 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Influence of the incidence angle on the periodicity of the structures (circles), and theoretical dependence expected from the LIPSS model (dashed curves). Laser beam polarization was s. (b) dependence of the modulation amplitudes with the incidence angle in the case of s and p polarization. Irradiation time, laser intensity, and film thickness were respectively equal to 90 min , 450 mW cm 2 , and 445 nm for (a) and (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Top view of the azo-dye polymer film after irradiation. These pictures are obtained using white light illumination of a structured polymer film following the deposition of a thin aluminum layer. Bleached zones on the pictures are enlightened by diffraction of the incident white light on the aluminum covered fringes. Without the aluminum film, the satellites would not be easily visible. The structurization of the azo-dye polymer films considered here was obtained using 1 W cm 2 irradiation power and 60 min of irradiation time. Laser light polarization direction is indicated with arrows.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Satellites formation scheme. Arrows indicate the propagation direction of the transmitted and reflected beams through the sample. Optical beam path is schematized with dashed lines. Reflection by the backside of a thin glass substrate is schematized with a solid line. The incident laser beam has a Gaussian shape intensity profile and its half width at half maximum is equal to 3 mm .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modulation amplitudes measured at saturation using different laser beam excitation wavelengths. Irradiation time, intensity, and film thickness were equal to 120 min , 300 mW cm 2 , and 350 nm , respectively. Continuous curve shows a zoom of the DR1 absorption spectrum.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Dynamic growth of the photoinduced structures for two different sample configurations: DR1MA/MMA directly spincoated on a glass substrate (solid curve) and DR1MA/MMA spincoated on a glass substrate with an aluminum layer previously evaporated on the backside of the sample (dashed curve). Configuration with aluminum is schematized in the upper part of the figure. Thickness of the polymer films was 300 nm . Irradiation intensities were equal to 100 mW cm 2 (circles), 200 mW cm 2 (triangles), and 300 mW cm 2 (squares). (b) Influence of the substrate backside reflection. Upper part: setup enabling us to suppress backside reflection. Lower part: experimental results. Configuration with backside reflection (empty symbols) and without backside reflection (full symbols). Thicknesses of the polymer films were 225, 350, 750 nm , and 1 μ m . Irradiation intensities were 300 mW cm 2 (circles) and 1 W cm 2 (squares). Irradiation time was 90 min .

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of the photoinduced structures’ periodicity with the irradiation wavelength. Polymer film thickness was 350 nm , irradiation time and intensity were 1 W cm 2 and 120 min , respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Picture showing the incident laser light coupled by the photoinduced structures. The sample was probed by the Ar-ion laser after self-structurization.

Metrics