Abstract

Photonic crystal fibers and fiber lasers have been two of the most rapidly evolving areas of optics and photonics over the past few years. Recent developments in the field of photonic crystal fibers are enabling new ways to generate, transform, and deliver light, and have significant implications for fiber laser design and applications. We review the ways in which photonic crystal fibers are affecting and may further affect the development and deployment of fiber laser technology.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  54. H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Fibre-based, source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 1523-1525 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  57. A. Isomaki and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Femtosecond soliton mode-locked laser based on ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9238-9243 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, "High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 233-244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, A. Tunnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 2715-2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wang, A. K. George, and J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schulzgen, L. Li, V. L. Temyanko, S. Suzuki, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-frequency fiber oscillator with watt-level output power using photonic crystal phosphate glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7087-7092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Isomaki and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Femtosecond soliton mode-locked laser based on ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9238-9243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J. Li, and X. Peng, "Bend-resistant fundamental mode operation in ytterbium-doped leakage channel fibers with effective areas up to 3160μm2," Opt. Express 14, 11512-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (16)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 267-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "20-kW peak power all-fiber 1.57-μm source based on compression in air-core photonic bandgap fiber, its frequency doubling, and broadband generation from 430 to 1450nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 436-438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. D. Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, F. Roser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Schenkel, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, "Pulse compression with supercontinuum generation in microstructure fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 687-693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, E. Roser, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Honninger, and E. Mottay, "High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, F. Roser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, and A. Tunnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Express 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "131W220fs fiber laser system," Opt. Lett. 30, 2754-2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Moenster, P. Glas, and G. Steinmeyer, "Femtosecond neodymium-doped microstructure fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 8671-8677 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Brooks and F. Di Teodoro, "1-mJ energy, 1-MW peak-power, 10-W average-power, spectrally narrow, diffraction-limited pulses from a photonic-crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 8999-9002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Teodoro and C. D. Brooks, "Multistage Yb-doped fiber amplifier generating megawatt peak-power, subnanosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 30, 3299-3301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Saitoh, Y. Tsuchida, M. Koshiba, and N. A. Mortensen, "Endlessly single-mode holey fibers: the influence of core design," Opt. Express 13, 10833-10839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Compact fully fibre integrated source of 100fs pulses at 1.1μm based on compression in holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 234-235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (12)

K. S. Abedin and F. Kubota, "10GHz, 1ps regeneratively modelocked fibre laser incorporating highly nonlinear and dispersive photonic crystal fibre for intracavity nonlinear pulse compression," Electron. Lett. 40, 58-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen and G. Vienne, "Side pumping of double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 436-438 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 12, 1313-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim and F. W. Wise, "Control of dispersion in a femtosecond ytterbium laser by use of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 2231-2235 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Moenster, P. Glas, G. Steinmeyer, and R. Iliew, "Mode-locked Nd-doped microstructured fiber laser," Opt. Express 12, 4523--4528 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McConnell and E. Riis, "Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre," Appl. Phys. B 78, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Fibre-based, source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 1523-1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (10)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Totally fiber integrated, figure-of-eight, femtosecond source at 1065nm," Opt. Express 11, 265-269 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, "Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 233-235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laegsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, "Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2046-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen, J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, and K. P. Hansen, "Modal cutoff and the V parameter in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1879-1881 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (2)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Abedin, K. S.

K. S. Abedin and F. Kubota, "10GHz, 1ps regeneratively modelocked fibre laser incorporating highly nonlinear and dispersive photonic crystal fibre for intracavity nonlinear pulse compression," Electron. Lett. 40, 58-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Avdokhin, A. V.

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Bouwmans, G.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broeng, J.

Brooks, C. D.

Buckley, E.

Buckley, J.

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Fibre-based, source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 1523-1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

Canning, J.

Chong, A.

H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Fibre-based, source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 1523-1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Courjaud, A.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

de Sandro, J. P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deguil-Robin, N.

Di Teodoro, F.

Dong, L.

Ermeneux, S.

Farr, L.

Fischer, D.

Folkenberg, J. R.

Furusawa, K.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gapontsev, V. P.

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Glas, P.

Groothoff, N.

Hand, D. P.

Hansen, K. P.

Hansen, T. P.

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hedley, T. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hensley, C. J.

Honninger, C.

Ilday, F. O.

Iliew, R.

Isomaki, A.

Jacobsen, C.

Jakobsen, C.

Jiang, S. B.

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Keller, U.

Kennedy, R. E.

Knight, J. C.

A. Wang, A. K. George, and J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

Kouznetsov, D.

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, F.

K. S. Abedin and F. Kubota, "10GHz, 1ps regeneratively modelocked fibre laser incorporating highly nonlinear and dispersive photonic crystal fibre for intracavity nonlinear pulse compression," Electron. Lett. 40, 58-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laegsgaard, J.

Larsen, J. J.

Lederer, F.

Li, H.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, L.

Liem, A.

Lim, H.

Limpert, J.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, "High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 233-244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, A. Tunnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 2715-2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. D. Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, F. Roser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, E. Roser, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Honninger, and E. Mottay, "High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "131W220fs fiber laser system," Opt. Lett. 30, 2754-2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, F. Roser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, and A. Tunnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Express 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 12, 1313-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Luo, T.

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyttikainen, K.

Mafi, A.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Malitson, I. H.

Manek-Honninger, I.

Mangan, B. J.

McConnell, G.

G. McConnell and E. Riis, "Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre," Appl. Phys. B 78, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moenster, M.

Moloney, J. V.

A. Schulzgen, L. Li, V. L. Temyanko, S. Suzuki, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-frequency fiber oscillator with watt-level output power using photonic crystal phosphate glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7087-7092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Morrell, M. M.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

Mottay, E.

Muller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. D.

Nilsson, J.

Nolte, S.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Isomaki and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Femtosecond soliton mode-locked laser based on ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9238-9243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortac, B.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paschotta, R.

Pearce, G. J.

Peng, X.

Percival, R. M.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, A.

Petropoulos, P.

K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Modelocked laser based on ytterbium doped holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 560-561 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulzgen, L. Li, V. L. Temyanko, S. Suzuki, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-frequency fiber oscillator with watt-level output power using photonic crystal phosphate glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7087-7092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Compact fully fibre integrated source of 100fs pulses at 1.1μm based on compression in holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 234-235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "20-kW peak power all-fiber 1.57-μm source based on compression in air-core photonic bandgap fiber, its frequency doubling, and broadband generation from 430 to 1450nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 436-438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Totally fiber integrated, figure-of-eight, femtosecond source at 1065nm," Opt. Express 11, 265-269 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, J. H. V.

Qiu, T.

Reeves, W. H.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reich, M.

Reid, D. T.

Richardson, D. J.

Riis, E.

G. McConnell and E. Riis, "Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre," Appl. Phys. B 78, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Roberts, P. J.

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robin, N. D.

Roser, E.

Roser, F.

Rothhard, J.

Rothhardt, J.

Rulkov, A. B.

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. S. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

J. D. Shephard, F. Couny, P. S. Russell, J. D. C. Jones, J. C. Knight, and D. P. Hand, "Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications," Appl. Opt. 44, 4582-4588 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Rusu, M.

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. de Matos, C. J.

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

Sabet, S.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, K.

Salin, F.

Schenkel, B.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, "High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 233-244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, A. Tunnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 2715-2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. D. Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, F. Roser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, E. Roser, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Honninger, and E. Mottay, "High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "131W220fs fiber laser system," Opt. Lett. 30, 2754-2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, F. Roser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, and A. Tunnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Express 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 12, 1313-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulzgen, A.

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulzgen, L. Li, V. L. Temyanko, S. Suzuki, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-frequency fiber oscillator with watt-level output power using photonic crystal phosphate glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7087-7092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shephard, J. D.

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

Suzuki, S.

Taylor, J. R.

C. J. S. de Matos, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "20-kW peak power all-fiber 1.57-μm source based on compression in air-core photonic bandgap fiber, its frequency doubling, and broadband generation from 430 to 1450nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 436-438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Compact fully fibre integrated source of 100fs pulses at 1.1μm based on compression in holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 234-235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Totally fiber integrated, figure-of-eight, femtosecond source at 1065nm," Opt. Express 11, 265-269 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temyanko, V. L.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchida, Y.

Tunnermann, A.

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, A. Tunnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 2715-2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, "High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 233-244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, E. Roser, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Honninger, and E. Mottay, "High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 714-716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. D. Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, F. Roser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Roser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "131W220fs fiber laser system," Opt. Lett. 30, 2754-2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, F. Roser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, and A. Tunnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Express 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 12, 1313-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateraman, N.

Vienne, G.

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, Q.

Williams, D. P.

Wise, F. W.

Xiao, D.

Yvernault, P.

Zagari, J.

Zellmer, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. McConnell and E. Riis, "Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre," Appl. Phys. B 78, 557-563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, M. M. Morrell, S. Sabet, H. Li, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Ultracompact cladding-pumped 35-mm-short fiber laser with 4.7-W single-mode output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (8)

K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, P. Petropoulos, and D. J. Richardson, "Modelocked laser based on ytterbium doped holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 560-561 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lim, J. Buckley, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Fibre-based, source of femtosecond pulses tunable from 1.0 to 1.3μm," Electron. Lett. 40, 1523-1525 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Compact fully fibre integrated source of 100fs pulses at 1.1μm based on compression in holey fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 234-235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Abedin and F. Kubota, "10GHz, 1ps regeneratively modelocked fibre laser incorporating highly nonlinear and dispersive photonic crystal fibre for intracavity nonlinear pulse compression," Electron. Lett. 40, 58-60 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. Russell, and J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russel, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. Russell, and J. P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Limpert, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, and A. Tunnermann, "High-power ultrafast fiber laser systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 233-244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

W. J. Wadsworth, R. M. Percival, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T. D. Hedley, and P. S. Russell, "Very high numerical aperture fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 843-845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, D. Kouznetsov, A. Schulzgen, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, and N. Peyghambarian, "A large-core compact high-power single-mode photonic crystal fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2595-2597 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (23)

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, and A. Tunnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams, and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, A. Liem, M. Reich, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "Low-nonlinearity single-transverse-mode ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 12, 1313-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim and F. W. Wise, "Control of dispersion in a femtosecond ytterbium laser by use of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 2231-2235 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Moenster, P. Glas, G. Steinmeyer, and R. Iliew, "Mode-locked Nd-doped microstructured fiber laser," Opt. Express 12, 4523--4528 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Furusawa, A. Malinowski, J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, and D. J. Richardson, "Cladding pumped Ytterbium-doped fiber laser with holey inner and outer cladding," Opt. Express 9, 714-720 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Glas and D. Fischer, "Cladding pumped large-mode-area Nd-doped holey fiber laser," Opt. Express 10, 286-290 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Lim, F. O. Ilday, and F. W. Wise, "Femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with photonic crystal fiber for dispersion control," Opt. Express 10, 1497-1502 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "Totally fiber integrated, figure-of-eight, femtosecond source at 1065nm," Opt. Express 11, 265-269 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, J. Broeng, G. Vienne, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power air-clad large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 11, 818-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, "Environmentally-stable femtosecond ytterbium fiber laser with birefringent photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 13, 3460-3464 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. D. Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, F. Roser, A. Liem, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, J. Broeng, A. Petersson, and C. Jakobsen, "High-power rod-type photonic crystal fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 1055-1058 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, "Empirical relations for simple design of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 267-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153-6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schreiber, F. Roser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, F. Lederer, A. Petersson, C. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, and A. Tunnermann, "Stress-induced single-polarization single-transverse mode photonic crystal fiber with low nonlinearity," Opt. Express 13, 7621-7630 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Moenster, P. Glas, and G. Steinmeyer, "Femtosecond neodymium-doped microstructure fiber laser," Opt. Express 13, 8671-8677 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Brooks and F. Di Teodoro, "1-mJ energy, 1-MW peak-power, 10-W average-power, spectrally narrow, diffraction-limited pulses from a photonic-crystal fiber amplifier," Opt. Express 13, 8999-9002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, Y. Tsuchida, M. Koshiba, and N. A. Mortensen, "Endlessly single-mode holey fibers: the influence of core design," Opt. Express 13, 10833-10839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Roser, T. Schreiber, A. Tunnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Express 14, 2715-2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schulzgen, L. Li, V. L. Temyanko, S. Suzuki, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Single-frequency fiber oscillator with watt-level output power using photonic crystal phosphate glass fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7087-7092 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Isomaki and O. G. Okhotnikov, "Femtosecond soliton mode-locked laser based on ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9238-9243 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, J. Li, and X. Peng, "Bend-resistant fundamental mode operation in ytterbium-doped leakage channel fibers with effective areas up to 3160μm2," Opt. Express 14, 11512-11519 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

A. Wang, A. K. George, and J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Teodoro and C. D. Brooks, "Multistage Yb-doped fiber amplifier generating megawatt peak-power, subnanosecond pulses," Opt. Lett. 30, 3299-3301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Roser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tunnermann, "131W220fs fiber laser system," Opt. Lett. 30, 2754-2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, "20-kW peak power all-fiber 1.57-μm source based on compression in air-core photonic bandgap fiber, its frequency doubling, and broadband generation from 430 to 1450nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 436-438 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, A. Schulzgen, V. L. Temyanko, T. Qiu, M. M. Morrell, Q. Wang, A. Mafi, J. V. Moloney, and N. Peyghambarian, "Short-length microstructured phosphate glass fiber lasers with large mode areas," Opt. Lett. 30, 1141-1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, N. Deguil-Robin, I. Manek-Honninger, F. Salin, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, E. Roser, H. Zellmer, A. Tunnermann, A. Courjaud, C. Honninger, and E. Mottay, "High-power picosecond fiber amplifier based on nonlinear spectral compression," Opt. Lett. 30, 714-716 (2005).
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N. Groothoff, J. Canning, E. Buckley, K. Lyttikainen, and J. Zagari, "Bragg gratings in air-silica structured fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 233-235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. S. J. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).
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J. J. Larsen and G. Vienne, "Side pumping of double-clad photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 436-438 (2004).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. J. S. de Matos, S. V. Popov, A. B. Rulkov, J. R. Taylor, J. Broeng, T. P. Hansen, and V. P. Gapontsev, "All-fiber format compression of frequency chirped pulses in air-guiding photonic crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 103901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

P. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relevance of PCFs for fiber lasers. PCFs can be used as a gain medium in lasers and amplifiers [as shown in (a)], to take advantage of the large-core-area single-mode performance or the high-NA cladding. They can be incorporated as linear or nonlinear intracavity elements in fiber laser cavities (b), for example, to manage GVD or affect the gain spectrum, or they can be used to manipulate the spectral and temporal properties of the laser beams (for example, pulse delivery, pulse compression, wavelength conversion, and supercontinuum generation).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrographs of different forms of PCF. (a) shows a large core supported by fine strands of glass, to form a high-NA multimode structure as required for cladding pumping a fiber laser. (b) is a single-moded or few-moded fiber with unusual dispersion and a high nonlinear response, useful for dispersion management (for example, in a mode-locked fiber laser) and nonlinear processing. (c) and (d) are different forms of photonic bandgap fiber, in which light can be guided only in narrow spectral ranges. (c) shows an all-solid bandgap fiber, with a pure silica core surrounded by a matrix of raised-index rings. In (d), the core is hollow, greatly reducing the nonlinear response of the fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GVD in PCFs. (a) The GVD D of bulk silica. (b) GVD D due purely to waveguide dispersion for a fiber of diameter 2 μ m , refractive index n = 1.5 and surrounded by air ( n = 1 ) . The waveguide GVD is comparable to the material GVD shown in (a) over a wide range of wavelengths. The structure is a good approximation to a PCF with a high air-filling-fraction cladding. The variation of modal index from which this curve is derived is shown as an inset. (c) Measured GVD in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Elements of a cladding-pumped PCF laser or amplifier fiber. The inner cladding is a two-dimensional photonic crystal material, with an effective index just slightly less than the refractive index of the doped silica in the core. The core is defined both by the presence of the active rare-earth elements (for example, Yb) and codopants (such as aluminum) and also by the absence of the air holes that are present in the inner cladding. In the structure illustrated, just a single air hole is missing (a “single-cell defect”) but other fiber designs have been reported (Ref. [24]) using three, seven, or more missing holes. The outer cladding is a high-air-fraction layer, formed of fine strands of silica with widths of less than the optical wavelength. The entire structure is contained within a supporting silica jacket and may be covered with a further coating material.

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