Abstract

Structural changes associated with femtosecond laser fabrication of waveguides and Bragg gratings in fused silica were analyzed using optical microscopy and laser spectroscopy. Using 800nm femtosecond lasers with a kilohertz repetition rate and various pulse energies, both smooth and rough modifications were induced. The different modification regimes were characterized by measuring the spectra of the light emitted during writing with the femtosecond laser and collecting fluorescence spectra after femtosecond writing using a low power 488nm laser as an excitation source. The spectral features observed during and after writing can be used to distinguish the smooth and rough modification regimes, and they assist in understanding the underlying modification mechanisms..

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," Opt. Express l3, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (4)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (5)

2000 (3)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

1970 (1)

R. Bruckner, "Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123-175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Armengol, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blewett, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Braunlich, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Brodeur, A.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruckner, R.

R. Bruckner, "Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123-175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bulgakova, N. M.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

Casper, R. T.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, X.

Davis, K. M.

De Mange, P.

Della Valle, G.

Demos, S.

Demos, S. G.

Diez-Dlanco, V.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fabian, H.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez-Navarro, J. M.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garcia, J. F.

Garcia-Navarro, A.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Haken, U.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hayashi, K.

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Hirao, K.

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horn, A.

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, "Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica," Appl. Phys. A 79, 923-925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Humbach, O.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Ito, D.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Jones, S. C.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Kelly, P.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Kluge, M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, Y.

Korn, G.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Kreutz, E. W.

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, "Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica," Appl. Phys. A 79, 923-925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kucheyev, S. O.

Laporta, P.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

Miura, K.

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Muller, G.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagasawa, K.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Nishikawa, H.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Ohki, Y.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, S.

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Poprawe, R.

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, "Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica," Appl. Phys. A 79, 923-925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Rubenchik, A. M.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, Y.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, O.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. A.

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Shirk, M. D.

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smelser, C. W.

Solis, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

Stoian, R.

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

Streltsov, A. M.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toma, T.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vega, F.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. B.

Watanabe, E.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Zimmer, J.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (4)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. A , 76, 367-372 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, G. Muller, A. Rosenfeld, R. Stoian, I. V. Hertel, N. M. Bulgakova, and E. E. B. Campbell, "Fundamentals and advantages of ultrafast micro-structuring of transparent materials," Appl. Phys. A 77, 223-228 (2003).

A. Horn, E. W. Kreutz, and R. Poprawe, "Ultrafast time-resolved photography of femtosecond laser induced modifications in BK7 glass and fused silica," Appl. Phys. A 79, 923-925 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7ns to 150fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernandez-Navarro, A. Garcia-Navarro, V. Diez-Dlanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, "Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nd-doped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, "Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3513-3519 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. B. Corkum, D. M. Rayner, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, B. Schreder, M. Kluge, and J. Zimmer, "Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modification in multicomponent glasses," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

U. Haken, O. Humbach, S. Ortner, and H. Fabian, "Refractive index of silica glass: influence of fictive temperature," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 265, 9-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bruckner, "Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123-175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, and E. Mazur, "Laser-induced breakdown and damage in bulk transparent materials induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1784-1794 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Study of damage in fused silica induced by ultra-short IR laser pulses," Opt. Commun. 191, 333-339 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

S. C. Jones, P. Braunlich, R. T. Casper, X. A. Shen, and P. Kelly, "Recent progress on laser-induced modifications and intrinsic bulk damage of wide-gap optical-materials," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 28, 1039-1068 (1989).

Opt. Express (2)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and D. Grobnic, "Formation of type I-IR and type II-IR gratings with an ultrafast IR laser and a phase mask," Opt. Express l3, 5377-5386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Demos, M. Staggs, K. Minoshima, and J. Fujimoto, "Characterization of laser induced damage sites in optical components," Opt. Express 10, 1444-1450 (2002).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, H. Ding, and X. Dai, "Multiple-beam interference patterns in optical fiber generated with ultrafast pulses and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1458-1460 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, and S. J. Mihailov, "Generation of pure two-beam interference grating structures in an optical fiber with a femtosecond infrared source and a phase mask," Opt. Lett. 29, 1730-1732 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, and O. Svelto, "Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 29, 2626-2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, P. De Mange, S. O. Kucheyev, M. D. Shirk, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, "Radiation produced by femtosecond laser-plasma interaction during dielectric breakdown," Opt. Lett. 30, 661-663 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24, 646-648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Watanabe, T. Toma, K. Yamada, J. Nishii, K. Hayashi, and K. Itoh, "Optical seizing and merging of voids in silica glass with infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 25, 1669-1671 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser modification with a 1 kHz pulse repetition rate femtosecond laser in fused silica as a function of pulse energy. The white region has a higher refractive index than the bulk glass, allowing it to function as waveguides. The black region has macroscopic damage, which causes it to scatter light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a),(b) White-light transmission images; (c),(d) fluorescence spectra collected after laser modification; and (e),(f) emission spectra collected during laser modification for smooth and rough femtosecond-laser modified lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence spectra normalized to the 530 nm band and (b) emission spectra observed during laser modification normalized to the 475 nm band as a function of femtosecond-laser pulse energy.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a),(b) White-light transmission images and (c),(d) fluorescence spectra for smooth and rough femtosecond-laser-written Bragg gratings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence images of the fiber Bragg grating shown in Fig. 4a. (a) the total fluorescence, and (b) the fluorescence from NBOHC defects.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence photobleaching of fiber gratings shown in Fig. 4a. (a) shows the full spectra before and after bleaching, and (b) shows the normalized peak intensities as a function of time.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = E τ A ,
A = π w 0 2 4 ,
w 0 = 2 M 2 λ π N n ,

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