Abstract

A nondestructive loss-measurement method for active planar waveguides has been developed. It is based on the determination of the longitudinal distribution of fluorescence light along the waveguiding direction, obtained at different excitation wavelengths. First measurements have been performed on a 10μm thick Nd:Sc2O3 waveguiding film, deposited on a sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and on a 35μm thick diffusion-bonded Nd:YAG waveguide between sapphire layers. Their scattering losses have been determined to be (11.6±0.9) and (6.9±0.9)dBcm, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics--Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer, 2002).
  2. F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).
  3. H. P. Weber, F. A. Dunn, and W. N. Leibolt, "Loss measurements in thin-film optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 12, 755-757 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Brülisauer, D. Fluck, C. Solcia, T. Pliska, and P. Günter, "Nondestructive waveguide loss-measurement method using self-pumped phase conjugation for optimum end-fire coupling," Opt. Lett. 20, 1773-1775 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Okamura, S. Yoshinaka, and S. Yamamoto, "Measuring mode propagation losses of integrated optical waveguides: a simple method," Appl. Opt. 22, 3892-3894 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part I--a review of process characteristics and capabilities," Process. Adv. Mater. 2, 1-24 (1993).
  9. K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part II--a review of process mechanisms," Process. Adv. Mater. 3, 63-82 (1993).
  10. Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part I--a review of process characteristics and capabilities," Process. Adv. Mater. 2, 1-24 (1993).

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part II--a review of process mechanisms," Process. Adv. Mater. 3, 63-82 (1993).

1983 (1)

1973 (1)

1971 (1)

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Brülisauer, S.

Douglas, J. W.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Dunn, F. A.

Fluck, D.

Günter, P.

Hribek, P.

P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunsperger, R. G.

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics--Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer, 2002).

Kahn, A.

Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuzminykh, Y.

Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, U.

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leibolt, W. N.

Menges, B.

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mittler-Neher, S.

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

Olson, D. R.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Pliska, T.

Saenger, K. L.

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part II--a review of process mechanisms," Process. Adv. Mater. 3, 63-82 (1993).

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part I--a review of process characteristics and capabilities," Process. Adv. Mater. 2, 1-24 (1993).

Schröfel, J.

P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slunecko, M.

P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

Thoma, F.

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

Weisser, M.

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yoshinaka, S.

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

P. Hribek, M. Slunecko, and J. Schröfel, "Planar and channel optical waveguide loss measurement using optical phase conjugation in BaTiO3," Fiber Integr. Opt. 21, 323-331 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

F. Zernike, J. W. Douglas, and D. R. Olson, "Transmission measurements in optical waveguides produced by proton irradiation of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 678 (1971).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Weisser, F. Thoma, B. Menges, U. Langbein, and S. Mittler-Neher, "Fluorescence in ion exchanged BK7 glass slab waveguides and its use for scattering free loss measurements," Opt. Commun. 153, 27-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Kuzminykh, A. Kahn, and G. Huber, "Nd3+ doped Sc2O3 waveguiding film produced by pulsed laser deposition," Opt. Mater. 28, 883-887 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Process. Adv. Mater. (2)

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part I--a review of process characteristics and capabilities," Process. Adv. Mater. 2, 1-24 (1993).

K. L. Saenger, "Pulsed laser deposition: Part II--a review of process mechanisms," Process. Adv. Mater. 3, 63-82 (1993).

Other (1)

R. G. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics--Theory and Technology, 5th ed. (Springer, 2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Loss-measurement setup using a photodiode covered by a moveable slit to determine the intensity of the fluorescence light I flu ( z ) as a function of the z position from where it originated within the waveguide. A filter blocking the excitation light and the lock-in technique ensure that only the fluorescence light is detected.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semilogarithmic plot of the lateral intensity distribution I ( z ) within the 10 μ m thick Nd ( 0.2 at . % ) : Sc 2 O 3 waveguide, obtained through a fluorescence measurement with the setup shown in Fig. 1. The measurement has been performed with laser light at λ = 825.6 nm and various input powers: —, P 1 = 32 mW ; - - -, P 2 = 16 mW ; - ∙ - ∙, P 3 = 4 mW ; and ⋯, P 4 = 4 mW . The total loss coefficients have been determined for each measurement with a linear fit: α 1 = ( 5.5 ± 0.1 ) , α 2 = ( 5.6 ± 0.1 ) , α 3 = ( 5.6 ± 0.2 ) , and α 4 = ( 5.5 ± 0.2 ) cm 1 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot for the separation of the scattering and absorption losses. —, in the 10 μ m thick Nd ( 0.2 at . % ) : Sc 2 O 3 waveguiding film; - - -, in the 35 μ m thick diffusion-bonded Nd : YAG waveguide. The total loss coefficients α have been measured at different excitation wavelengths with different resulting relative absorption cross sections σ σ max (see excitation spectra in the insets) and linearly fitted. Each data point is determined by applying the procedure shown in Fig. 2. The coefficients k and α sc can be obtained from the slope of the resulting line and its intersection with the ordinate, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Scattering Loss Measurement Results

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( z ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( α z ) .
α ( σ ( λ ) σ max ) = α sc + L abs ( λ ) = α sc + k × σ ( λ ) σ max .

Metrics