Abstract

We carried out second-harmonic generation in quasi-phase-matched α-phase lithium niobate channel waveguides realized by proton exchange and surface periodic poling. Owing to a limited ferroelectric domain depth, we could observe the interplay between second-harmonic generation and self-phase modulation due to cascading and cubic effects, resulting in a nonlinear resonance shift. Data reduction allowed us to evaluate both the quadratic nonlinearity in the near infrared as well as the depth of the uninverted domains.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  46. R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
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2006

2005

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. D. Landry and T. A. Maldonado, "Counterpropagating quasi-phase matching: a generalized analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1509-1520 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTiOPO waveguide," Opt. Commun. 181, 153-159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, "Cavityless oscillations through backward quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1139-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 24, 127-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

1998

1997

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, W. K. Burns, and J. S. Melinger, "Backward second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 22, 862-864 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Spatial solitons and induced Kerr effects in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749-4752 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, and J. B. Khurgin, "Transversely pumped counterpropagating optical parametric oscillation and amplification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, R. Muschall, G. Assanto, V. P. Torchigin, and F. Lederer, "An analytical approach to all-optical modulation by cascading," Opt. Lett. 20, 1686-1688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, "Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions," Opt. Lett. 20, 1595-1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy, and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302-1310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221-1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second-harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174-175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D 22, 611-616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

S. Miyazawa, "Ferroelectric domain inversion in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599-4603 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

Apostopoulos, V.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aschieri, P.

Aschièri, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, "Cavityless oscillations through backward quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1139-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, "Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions," Opt. Lett. 20, 1595-1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, R. Muschall, G. Assanto, V. P. Torchigin, and F. Lederer, "An analytical approach to all-optical modulation by cascading," Opt. Lett. 20, 1686-1688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear optics basics: cascading," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R.D.Guenther, D.G.Steel, and L.D.Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2005), Vol. 3, pp. 207-212.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

G. I. Stegeman and G. Assanto, "Nonlinear integrated optical devices," in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Application, E.J.Murphy, ed. (Dekker, 1999), pp. 381-418; and references therein.

Baldi, P.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

A. Kobyakov, F. Lederer, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear phase shift and all-optical switching in quasi phase matched quadratic media," Opt. Lett. 23, 506-508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Spatial solitons and induced Kerr effects in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749-4752 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barety, J. P.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Batchko, R.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

Busacca, A. C.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Byer, R.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second-harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174-175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D 22, 611-616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Canali, C.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Canalias, C.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. F.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy, and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302-1310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carnera, A.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chanvillard, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cherchi, M.

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Chinaglia, W.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M.-H.

Cino, A. C.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Clausen, C. B.

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Spatial solitons and induced Kerr effects in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749-4752 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cockings, O. R.

Colace, L.

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Conti, C.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, "Cavityless oscillations through backward quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1139-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cussat-Blanc, S.

De Micheli, M.

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M. P.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Salvo, R.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Di Trapani, P.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Ducasse, A.

Eason, R. W.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

El Hadi, K.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

Fejer, M.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fokine, M.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

Fujimura, M.

Gallo, K.

Ganeev, R. A.

Glavas, E.

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D 22, 611-616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

Hagan, D. J.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, P. F.

Huang, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221-1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221-1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Khurgin, J. B.

Kilius, J.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. Kobyakov, F. Lederer, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear phase shift and all-optical switching in quasi phase matched quadratic media," Opt. Lett. 23, 506-508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Spatial solitons and induced Kerr effects in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749-4752 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobyakov, A.

Korkishko, Y. N.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

Korotkov, R. Y.

Kulagin, I. A.

Kurz, J. R.

Landry, G. D.

Lang, R. J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lee, S. J.

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, and J. B. Khurgin, "Transversely pumped counterpropagating optical parametric oscillation and amplification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leycuras, A.

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

Lim, E. J.

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second-harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174-175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mailis, S.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Makarov, M.

Maldonado, T. A.

Maleck Rassoul, R.

Manassah, J. T.

Mazzi, G.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Melinger, J. S.

Miller, G.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Minardi, S.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, S.

S. Miyazawa, "Ferroelectric domain inversion in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599-4603 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTiOPO waveguide," Opt. Commun. 181, 153-159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Muschall, R.

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nam, D. W.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. El Hadi, M. Sundheimer, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, M. P. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and F. Laurell, "Quasi-phase-matched parametric interactions in proton-exchanged lithium niobate waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3197-3203 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Parisi, A.

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Pasiskevicius, V.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

Ramaswamy, R. V.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy, and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302-1310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ravaro, M.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTiOPO waveguide," Opt. Commun. 181, 153-159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 24, 127-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riva Sanseverino, S.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

Rumyantsev, E.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

Said, A. A.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shur, V.

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siala, S.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sones, C. L.

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy, and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302-1310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear optics basics: cascading," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R.D.Guenther, D.G.Steel, and L.D.Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2005), Vol. 3, pp. 207-212.
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and G. Assanto, "Nonlinear integrated optical devices," in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Application, E.J.Murphy, ed. (Dekker, 1999), pp. 381-418; and references therein.

Stivala, S.

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Takyu, C.

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221-1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Torchigin, V. P.

Townsend, P. D.

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D 22, 611-616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, "Cavityless oscillations through backward quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1139-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tugushev, R. I.

Usmanov, T.

Valiulis, G.

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Veselka, J. J.

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Webjörn, J.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

White, J. M.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Zotova, I. B.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTiOPO waveguide," Opt. Commun. 181, 153-159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. M. White and P. F. Heidrich, "Optical waveguide refractive index profiles determined from measurement of mode indices: a simple analysis," Appl. Opt. 15, 151-155 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, M. P. De Micheli, P. Baldi, K. El Hadi, and A. Leycuras, "Relationships between structural and optical properties of proton-exchanged waveguides on Z-cut lithium niobate," Appl. Opt. 36, 7056-7060 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschièri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. De Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, "Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089-1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, M. Fokine, and F. Laurell, "Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 181105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, Z. Wang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "All-optical modulation via nonlinear cascading in Type II second harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2120-2122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, and J. J. Veselka, "Proton exchange for high-index waveguides in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607-608 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "First order quasi-phase matched blue light generation in surface poled Ti-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4430-4432 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, C. L. Sones, V. Apostopoulos, R. W. Eason, and S. Mailis, "Surface domain engineering in congruent lithium niobate single crystals: a route to submicron periodic poling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4946-4948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. C. Busacca, A. C. Cino, S. Riva Sanseverino, M. Ravaro, and G. Assanto, "Silica masks for improved surface poling of lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 41, 92-93 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ito, C. Takyu, and H. Inaba, "Fabrication of periodic domain grating in LiNbO3 by electron beam writing for application of nonlinear optical processes," Electron. Lett. 27, 1221-1222 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Lim, M. M. Fejer, and R. L. Byer, "Second-harmonic generation of green light in periodically poled planar lithium niobate waveguide," Electron. Lett. 25, 174-175 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

V. Shur, E. Rumyantsev, R. Batchko, G. Miller, M. Fejer, and R. Byer, "Physical basis of the domain engineering in the bulk ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 221, 157-159 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. Webjörn, S. Siala, D. W. Nam, R. G. Waarts, and R. J. Lang, "Visible laser sources based on frequency doubling in nonlinear waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1673-1686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Coherent interactions for all-optical signal processing via quadratic nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673-681 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. De Salvo, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. Sheik-Bahae, "Infrared to ultraviolet measurements of two-photon absorption in wide bandgap solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1324-1333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation: tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631-2654 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Suhara and H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Miyazawa, "Ferroelectric domain inversion in Ti-diffused LiNbO3 optical waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4599-4603 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, J. P. Barety, C. Canali, A. Carnera, G. Mazzi, and M. Papuchon, "Crystalline and optical quality of proton exchanged waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 743-745 (1986).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Cao, R. V. Ramaswamy, and R. Srivastava, "Characterization of annealed proton exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for nonlinear frequency conversion," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1302-1310 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

E. Glavas, J. M. Cabrera, and P. D. Townsend, "A comparison of optical damage in different types of LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Phys. D 22, 611-616 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

X. Mu, I. B. Zotova, Y. J. Ding, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic generation in submicron-period ion-exchanged KTiOPO waveguide," Opt. Commun. 181, 153-159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

A. Kobyakov, F. Lederer, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear phase shift and all-optical switching in quasi phase matched quadratic media," Opt. Lett. 23, 506-508 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Kobyakov, U. Peschel, R. Muschall, G. Assanto, V. P. Torchigin, and F. Lederer, "An analytical approach to all-optical modulation by cascading," Opt. Lett. 20, 1686-1688 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. De Salvo, D. J. Hagan, M. Sheik-Bahae, G. I. Stegeman, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Self-focusing and self-defocusing by cascaded second-order effects in KTP," Opt. Lett. 17, 28-30 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, E. W. Van Stryland, and G. Assanto, "Large nonlinear phase shifts in second-order nonlinear-optical process," Opt. Lett. 18, 13-15 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Assanto, "Transistor action through nonlinear cascading in Type II interactions," Opt. Lett. 20, 1595-1597 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gu, M. Makarov, Y. J. Ding, J. B. Khurgin, and W. P. Risk, "Backward second-harmonic and third-harmonic generation in a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 24, 127-129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Kang, Y. J. Ding, W. K. Burns, and J. S. Melinger, "Backward second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 22, 862-864 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, G. Assanto, and S. Trillo, "Cavityless oscillations through backward quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 24, 1139-1141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Gallo, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and G. Assanto, "Cascading phase shift and multivalued response in counterpropagating frequency-nondegenerate parametric amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 25, 966-968 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Parameswaran, R. K. Route, J. R. Kurz, R. V. Roussev, M. M. Fejer, and M. Fujimura, "Highly efficient second-harmonic generation in waveguides formed by annealed and reverse proton in periodically poled lithium niobate," Opt. Lett. 27, 179-181 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Manassah and O. R. Cockings, "Induced phase modulation of generated second-harmonic signal," Opt. Lett. 12, 1005-1007 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cussat-Blanc, R. Maleck Rassoul, A. Ivanov, E. Freysz, and A. Ducasse, "Influence of cascading phenomena on a type I second-harmonic wave generated by an intense femtosecond pulse: application to the measurement of the effective second-order coefficient," Opt. Lett. 23, 1585-1587 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. B. Clausen, O. Bang, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Spatial solitons and induced Kerr effects in quasi-phase-matched quadratic media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4749-4752 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Ding, S. J. Lee, and J. B. Khurgin, "Transversely pumped counterpropagating optical parametric oscillation and amplification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 429-432 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Di Trapani, A. Bramati, S. Minardi, W. Chinaglia, C. Conti, S. Trillo, J. Kilius, and G. Valiulis, "Focusing versus defocusing nonlinearities due to parametric wave mixing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183902 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Assanto and G. I. Stegeman, "Nonlinear optics basics: cascading," in Encyclopedia of Modern Optics, R.D.Guenther, D.G.Steel, and L.D.Bayvel, eds. (Elsevier, 2005), Vol. 3, pp. 207-212.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Busacca, M. Cherchi, S. Riva Sanseverino, A. C. Cino, A. Parisi, S. Stivala, L. Colace, and G. Assanto, "Proton exchanged channel waveguides compatible with surface domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CMB4.

Crystal Technology Inc., http://www.crystaltechnology.com/docs/LNopt.pdf.

G. I. Stegeman and G. Assanto, "Nonlinear integrated optical devices," in Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Application, E.J.Murphy, ed. (Dekker, 1999), pp. 381-418; and references therein.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of (a) bulk poling via electric field and (b) surface poling owing to overpoling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Extraordinary index profile calculated by inverse WKB from distributed coupling data. The dots are measured effective indices at 632.8 nm ; the solid curve is a WKB fit. (b) Scanning electron microphotograph of a typical sample: the PE waveguide is clearly visible on the inverted domain grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup for SHG measurements. HWP, half-wave-plate; BS, beam splitter; OB, microscope objective; PD, photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (open circles) and predicted (solid curve) SHG conversion efficiency versus FF wavelength for a launched peak power of 2 kW .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG resonance shift in wavelength for increasing peak excitations 7.4, 8.9, 11.2, and 12.7 kW from left to right, respectively. The experimental values (open circles) are numerically interpolated using Eq. (2) (solid curves).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Peak SHG wavelength shift and (b) maximum conversion efficiency versus FF peak power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) FF and (b) SH output intensity modal distributions as imaged with a Vidicon tube and a CCD camera, respectively.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( x , y , z ; t ) = 1 2 E u ( x , y , z ; t ) exp ( i ω u t i β u x ) + c.c. ,
E u = 2 η 0 N u e u ( y , z ) 2 d y d z u ( x ) e u ( y , z ) ,
w x + w t c w = w * v [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ β 1 x ) + i χ 2 exp ( i Δ β 2 x ) ] i n 2 2 π λ FF ( f w w w 2 + 2 f w v v 2 ) w α w 2 ,
v x + v t c v = w 2 [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ β 1 x ) i χ 2 exp ( i Δ β 2 x ) ] i n 2 4 π λ FF ( 2 f v w w 2 + f v v v 2 ) v α v 2 ,
f j k + + e j ( y , z ) 2 e k ( y , z ) 2 d y d z + + e j ( y , z ) 2 d y d z + + e k ( y , z ) 2 d y d z ( j , k = v , w ) .
χ i = d eff i γ i 8 π 2 η 0 f SHG λ FF 2 N w 2 N v ,
f SHG [ + + e v * ( y , z ) e w 2 ( y , z ) d y d z ] 2 [ + + e w ( y , z ) 2 d y d z ] 2 + + e v ( y , z ) 2 d y d z ,
γ 1 = + Z 0 + e v * ( y , z ) e w 2 ( y , z ) d y d z + + e v * ( y , z ) e w 2 ( y , z ) d y d z ,
γ 2 = + Z 0 e v * ( y , z ) e w 2 ( y , z ) d y d z + + e v * ( y , z ) e w 2 ( y , z ) d y d z = 1 γ 1 ,
w ( x , τ ) x = w * v [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ β 1 x ) + i χ 2 exp ( i Δ β 2 x ) ] i 2 π λ FF n 2 f w w w 2 w ,
v ( x , τ ) x = w 2 [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ β 1 x ) i χ 2 exp ( i Δ β 2 x ) ] i 8 π λ FF n 2 f v w w 2 v ,
w = W exp ( i 2 π λ FF n 2 f w w w o 2 x ) ,
v = V exp ( i 8 π λ FF n 2 f v w w o 2 x ) ,
Δ k i = Δ β i + 8 π λ FF n 2 f v w w o 2 4 π λ FF n 2 f w w w o 2 ( i = 1 , 2 ) ,
W x = W * V [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ k 1 x ) + i χ 2 exp ( i Δ k 2 x ) ] ,
V x = W 2 [ χ 1 exp ( i Δ k 1 x ) i χ 2 exp ( i Δ k 2 x ) ] .
W x x + i Δ k 2 W x χ 2 2 ( W 2 V 2 ) W .
ϕ = Δ k 2 x 2 ( [ 1 + 4 χ 2 2 w o 2 g ( τ ) 2 ( Δ k 2 ) 2 1 ] ) χ 2 2 w o 2 g ( τ ) 2 Δ β 2 x ,
v 2 = χ 1 2 w o 4 g 4 ( τ ) L 2 sinc 2 [ ( Δ β 1 + Δ C w o 2 g 2 ( τ ) ) L 2 ] ,
Δ C = 8 π λ FF n 2 f v w 4 π λ FF n 2 f w w + 2 χ 2 2 Δ β 2 .
λ = Δ C λ o k G w o 2 g 2 ( τ ) + λ o .

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