Abstract

Values for the two-photon absorption coefficient, α2, and nonlinear refractive index coefficients, n2, are measured for a waveguide core made of 14:14 monolayer GaAsAlAs superlattice at photon energies below the half-bandgap. Two-photon absorption coefficients show significant anisotropy with the TE mode having α2 values up to four times greater than the TM mode. For nonlinear refraction, we determined values of the nonlinear index for the TE mode that are as much as two times larger than the TM mode. Measurements of cross-phase modulation between the TE and TM modes gave ratios of cross-phase modulation to self-phase modulation that were highly anisotropic.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. H. Marsh, "Quantum well intermixing," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 1136-1155 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. C. Hutchings and T. C. Kleckner, "Quasi phase matching in semiconductor waveguides by intermixing: optimization considerations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 890-894 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, R. M. Gwilliam, K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a GaAs/AlAs superlattice waveguide by ion-implantation-induced intermixing," Opt. Lett. 28, 911-913 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C. Hutchings, "Theory of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in semiconductor superlattices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1124-1132 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. S. Grant, "Effective non-linear coefficients of optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1161-1173 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Dinu, "Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1298-1503 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).
  17. D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, B. S. Wherrett, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, "Polarization dependence of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an AlGaAs waveguide at the half-band gap," Opt. Lett. 20, 991-993 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. I. Stegeman, "Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching," Proc. SPIE 1852, 75-89 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. C. Hutchings, "Theory of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in semiconductor superlattices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1124-1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, "Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1298-1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, R. M. Gwilliam, K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a GaAs/AlAs superlattice waveguide by ion-implantation-induced intermixing," Opt. Lett. 28, 911-913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. S. Grant, "Effective non-linear coefficients of optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1161-1173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, B. S. Wherrett, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, "Polarization dependence of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an AlGaAs waveguide at the half-band gap," Opt. Lett. 20, 991-993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

G. I. Stegeman, "Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching," Proc. SPIE 1852, 75-89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Marsh, "Quantum well intermixing," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 1136-1155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

Aitchison, J. S.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, B. S. Wherrett, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, "Polarization dependence of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an AlGaAs waveguide at the half-band gap," Opt. Lett. 20, 991-993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Angelis, C. D.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, J. M.

Brown, C. T. A.

Bryce, A. C.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, "Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1298-1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Driel, H. M. v.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebrahimzadeh, M.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gehrsitz, S.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gourgon, C.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

R. S. Grant, "Effective non-linear coefficients of optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1161-1173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R. M.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helmy, A. S.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herres, N.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutchings, D. C.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, "Theory of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in semiconductor superlattices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1124-1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, R. M. Gwilliam, K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a GaAs/AlAs superlattice waveguide by ion-implantation-induced intermixing," Opt. Lett. 28, 911-913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hutchings and T. C. Kleckner, "Quasi phase matching in semiconductor waveguides by intermixing: optimization considerations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 890-894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings, J. S. Aitchison, B. S. Wherrett, G. T. Kennedy, and W. Sibbett, "Polarization dependence of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an AlGaAs waveguide at the half-band gap," Opt. Lett. 20, 991-993 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kean, A. H.

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

Kleckner, T. C.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hutchings and T. C. Kleckner, "Quasi phase matching in semiconductor waveguides by intermixing: optimization considerations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 890-894 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. H.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Locatelli, A.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

Modotto, D.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

Nakamura, S.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, S. V.

Reinhart, F. K.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Sigg, H.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Helmy, D. C. Hutchings, T. C. Kleckner, J. H. Marsh, A. C. Bryce, J. M. Arnold, C. R. Stanley, J. S. Aitchison, C. T. A. Brown, K. Moutzouris, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi phase matching in GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides through bandgap tuning by use of quantum-well intermixing," Opt. Lett. 25, 1370-1372 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, "Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching," Proc. SPIE 1852, 75-89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. W.

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vonlanthen, A.

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

Wigley, P. G. J.

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zeaiter, K.

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, R. M. Gwilliam, K. Moutzouris, S. V. Rao, and M. Ebrahimzadeh, "Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a GaAs/AlAs superlattice waveguide by ion-implantation-induced intermixing," Opt. Lett. 28, 911-913 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. J. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and C. N. Ironside, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, and G. I. Stegeman, "Unity ratio of cross- to self-phase modulation in bulk AlGaAs and AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well waveguides at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 760-762 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, S. Nakamura, and Y. Sugimoto, "Ultrafast polarization-discriminating Mach-Zehnder all-optical switch," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3709-3711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, and G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in Al0.18Ga0.82As directional coupler in 1.55μm spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, C. H. Lin, and H. H. Lin, "Measurements of two-photon absorption coefficient and induced nonlinear refractive index in GaAs/AlGaAs multiquantum well waveguides," Electron. Lett. 29, 37-38 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kleckner, A. S. Helmy, K. Zeaiter, D. C. Hutchings, and J. S. Aitchison, "Dispersion and modulation of the linear optical properties of GaAs-AlAs superlattice waveguides using quantum-well intermixing," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 280-286 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. C. Hutchings, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Dispersion of bound electron nonlinear refraction in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1296-1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, "Dispersion of phonon-assisted nonresonant third-order nonlinearities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1298-1503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Hutchings, "Theory of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in semiconductor superlattices," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 1124-1132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, and H. Sigg, "The refractive index of AlxGa1−xAs below the band gap: accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, "GaAs, AlAs, and AlxGa1−xAs: material parameters for use in research and device applications," J. Appl. Phys. 58, R1-R29 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Modotto, J. P. Mondia, S. Linden, H. W. Tan, R. Morandotti, T. C. Kleckner, A. Locatelli, C. D. Angelis, H. M. v. Driel, C. R. Stanley, and J. S. Aitchison, "Asymmetric spectrum evolution of high power short pulses in AlGaAs," Opt. Commun. 249, 201-208 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Grant, "Effective non-linear coefficients of optical waveguides," Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1161-1173 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. I. Stegeman, "Material figures of merit and implications to all-optical waveguide switching," Proc. SPIE 1852, 75-89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. H. Marsh, "Quantum well intermixing," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 6, 1136-1155 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 1995).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layer structure of the superlattice-core waveguide wafer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured values of the two-photon absorption coefficient, α 2 , for the TE and TM modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured SPM-induced spectral broadening at 1545 nm for the (a) TE mode and (b) TM mode. The dashed line indicates the input peak power at which the spectral broadening pattern corresponds to a 1.5 π nonlinear phase shift.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated SPM-induced spectral broadening at 1545 nm for the TE mode produced by the split-step Fourier method. The evolution of the spectrum with input power and the location of the 3 π 2 nonlinear phase shift fits well with the measured spectral broadening of Fig. 3a.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured values of the nonlinear refractive index coefficient, n 2 , for the TE and TM modes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured XPM-induced spectral broadening of a 1545 nm TE mode probe acted on by a TM mode pump. Asymmetric broadening results from the group velocity mismatch between probe and pump.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated XPM-induced spectral broadening of a TE probe acted on by TM pump at 1545 nm . The broadening pattern matches well with the measured pattern in Fig. 7.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured nonlinear refraction coefficients for XPM, n X 2 , in the superlattice.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured XPM–SPM ratios for the superlattice.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Figure of merit for TE and TM modes.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n e f f
= n 2 , ( 1 ) ( 1 ) I 2 ( x , y ) d x d y + n 2 , ( 2 ) ( 2 ) I 2 ( x , y ) d x d y + I ( x , y ) d x d y , ,
Δ n e f f = n 2 , ( 1 ) P A e f f , ( 1 ) ( 3 ) + n 2 , ( 2 ) P A e f f , ( 2 ) ( 3 ) + ,
A e f f , ( i ) ( 3 ) = [ I ( x , y ) d x d y ] 2 ( i ) I 2 ( x , y ) d x d y
1 T = 1 T 0 + α 2 [ 1 exp ( α 1 L ) ] α 1 ( 1 R ) exp ( α 1 L ) I e f f ( 3 ) ,
j A z + j α 1 2 A + j α 2 2 A 2 A e f f ( 3 ) A β 2 2 2 A t 2 + 2 π n 2 λ A e f f ( 3 ) A 2 A = 0 ,
A ( t , 0 ) = A 0 exp [ 1 + i C 2 ( t t 0 ) 2 m ] ,
j A p m z + j α p m 2 A p m + j α 2 , p m 2 A p m 2 A e f f , p m ( 3 ) A p m 1 v g , p m A p m t β 2 , p m 2 2 A p m t 2 + 2 π λ n 2 A e f f , p m ( 3 ) A p m 2 A p m = 0 ,
j A p b z + j α p b 2 A p b 1 v g , p b A p b t β 2 , p b 2 2 A p b t 2 + 2 π λ n X 2 A e f f , p m ( 3 ) A p m 2 A p b = 0 ,
δ ω t A ( z , t ) 2 ,
FOM = 2 α 2 λ n 2 .

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