Abstract

A method for calculation of near-field images of semiconductor surfaces with an inhomogeneous electron distribution is proposed. The method is based on linear response theory. As a result, the solution of the Lippman–Schwinger equation for a self-consistent field is presented via the effective susceptibility. Near-field images of a modulation-doped n-type GaAs surface subjected to illumination with pulses of a strongly focused laser beam are calculated. The developed approach is universal and applicable for the analysis of experimental data on time-resolved near-field microscopy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  29. A. D. Yaghjian, "Electric dyadic Green's functions in the source region," Proc. IEEE 68, 248-263 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Lakhtakia, "Macroscopic theory of the coupled dipole approximation method," Opt. Commun. 79, 1-5 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. O. J. F. Martin "3D simulations of the experimental signal measured in near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 194, 235-239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Second harmonic scanning optical microscopy of individual nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

V. Lozovski, Yu. Nazarok, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field imaging of pyramid-like nano-particles at a surface," Physica E (Amsterdam) 11, 323-331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Paulus and O. J. F. Martin, "Green's tensor technique for scattering in 2D stratified media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 066615 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

C. Girard, C. Joachim, and S. Gauthier, "The physics of the near-field," Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893-938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, and Ch. Lienau, "Ultrafast near-field spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional transport in a single quantum wire," Phys. Rev. B 61, R10583-R10586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Self-consistent model for second-harmonic near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11139-11150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin "3D simulations of the experimental signal measured in near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 194, 235-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

O. J. F. Martin and N. B. Piller, "Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909-3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

C. Girard and A. Dereux, "Near-field optics theories," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657-699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, "Local fields in the electrodynamics of mesoscopic media," Phys. Rep. 268, 85-262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

O. Keller, M. Xiao, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach," Surf. Sci. 280, 217-230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Lakhtakia, "Macroscopic theory of the coupled dipole approximation method," Opt. Commun. 79, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. D. Yaghjian, "Electric dyadic Green's functions in the source region," Proc. IEEE 68, 248-263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. A. Maradudin and D. L. Mills, "Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a semi-infinite medium in the presence of surface roughness," Phys. Rev. B 11, 1392-1415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. M. Elson and R. H. Ritchie, "Diffuse scattering and surface plasmon generation at a rough dielectric surface," Phys. Status Solidi B 62, 461-469 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

J. Van Bladel, "Some remarks on Green's dyadic for infinite space," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-9, 563-566 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Abrikosov, A. A.

A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gor'kov, and I. Ye. Dzyaloshinskii, Quantum Field Theoretical Methods in Statistical Physics (Pergamon, 1965).

Adelmann, Ch.

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Awschalom, D. D.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behme, G.

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

J. B. Stark, U. Mohideen, E. Betzig, and R. E. Slusher, "Time-resolved nonlinear near-field optical microscopy of semiconductor microdisks," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1996), pp. 349-350.

Bozhevolnyi, S.

V. Lozovski, Yu. Nazarok, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field imaging of pyramid-like nano-particles at a surface," Physica E (Amsterdam) 11, 323-331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, M. Xiao, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach," Surf. Sci. 280, 217-230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Second harmonic scanning optical microscopy of individual nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Self-consistent model for second-harmonic near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11139-11150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field optics of nanostructured surfaces," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, V.M.Markel and T.F.George, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 73-142.

Carminati, R.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Castiaux, A.

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

C. Girard and A. Dereux, "Near-field optics theories," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657-699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dzyaloshinskii, I. Ye.

A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gor'kov, and I. Ye. Dzyaloshinskii, Quantum Field Theoretical Methods in Statistical Physics (Pergamon, 1965).

Elsaesser, T.

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson and R. H. Ritchie, "Diffuse scattering and surface plasmon generation at a rough dielectric surface," Phys. Status Solidi B 62, 461-469 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Emiliani, V.

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, and Ch. Lienau, "Ultrafast near-field spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional transport in a single quantum wire," Phys. Rev. B 61, R10583-R10586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, R.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauthier, S.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, and S. Gauthier, "The physics of the near-field," Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893-938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, and S. Gauthier, "The physics of the near-field," Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893-938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, "Near-field optics theories," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657-699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gor'kov, L. P.

A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gor'kov, and I. Ye. Dzyaloshinskii, Quantum Field Theoretical Methods in Statistical Physics (Pergamon, 1965).

Greffet, J.-J.

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, T.

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, and Ch. Lienau, "Ultrafast near-field spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional transport in a single quantum wire," Phys. Rev. B 61, R10583-R10586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanewinkel, B.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, D.

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hetzler, J.

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joachim, C.

C. Girard, C. Joachim, and S. Gauthier, "The physics of the near-field," Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893-938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

O. Keller, "Local fields in the electrodynamics of mesoscopic media," Phys. Rep. 268, 85-262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Keller, M. Xiao, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach," Surf. Sci. 280, 217-230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kikkawa, J. M.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorr, A.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

A. Lakhtakia, "Macroscopic theory of the coupled dipole approximation method," Opt. Commun. 79, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lienau, Ch.

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, and Ch. Lienau, "Ultrafast near-field spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional transport in a single quantum wire," Phys. Rev. B 61, R10583-R10586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980).

Löhneysen, H. v.

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lozovski, V.

V. Lozovski, Yu. Nazarok, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field imaging of pyramid-like nano-particles at a surface," Physica E (Amsterdam) 11, 323-331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lozovski, V. Z.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Second harmonic scanning optical microscopy of individual nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Self-consistent model for second-harmonic near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11139-11150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. A. Maradudin and D. L. Mills, "Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a semi-infinite medium in the presence of surface roughness," Phys. Rev. B 11, 1392-1415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

M. Paulus and O. J. F. Martin, "Green's tensor technique for scattering in 2D stratified media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 066615 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin "3D simulations of the experimental signal measured in near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 194, 235-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin and N. B. Piller, "Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909-3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

A. A. Maradudin and D. L. Mills, "Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a semi-infinite medium in the presence of surface roughness," Phys. Rev. B 11, 1392-1415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mohideen, U.

J. B. Stark, U. Mohideen, E. Betzig, and R. E. Slusher, "Time-resolved nonlinear near-field optical microscopy of semiconductor microdisks," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1996), pp. 349-350.

Moyer, P. J.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, 1996).

Nazarok, Yu.

V. Lozovski, Yu. Nazarok, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field imaging of pyramid-like nano-particles at a surface," Physica E (Amsterdam) 11, 323-331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, V.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, 1996).

Paulus, M.

M. Paulus and O. J. F. Martin, "Green's tensor technique for scattering in 2D stratified media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 066615 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piller, N. B.

O. J. F. Martin and N. B. Piller, "Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909-3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pitaevskii, L. P.

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980).

Ploog, K. H.

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richter, A.

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, R. H.

J. M. Elson and R. H. Ritchie, "Diffuse scattering and surface plasmon generation at a rough dielectric surface," Phys. Status Solidi B 62, 461-469 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Samarth, N.

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheiber, G.

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, Th.

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

J. B. Stark, U. Mohideen, E. Betzig, and R. E. Slusher, "Time-resolved nonlinear near-field optical microscopy of semiconductor microdisks," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1996), pp. 349-350.

Stark, J. B.

J. B. Stark, U. Mohideen, E. Betzig, and R. E. Slusher, "Time-resolved nonlinear near-field optical microscopy of semiconductor microdisks," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1996), pp. 349-350.

Süptitz, M.

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Bladel, J.

J. Van Bladel, "Some remarks on Green's dyadic for infinite space," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-9, 563-566 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J. P.

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. B.

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

O. Keller, M. Xiao, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach," Surf. Sci. 280, 217-230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yaghjian, A. D.

A. D. Yaghjian, "Electric dyadic Green's functions in the source region," Proc. IEEE 68, 248-263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Ch. Adelmann, J. Hetzler, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, M. Wegener, H. B. Weber, and H. v. Löhneysen, "Experiments on the depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 179-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Guenther, V. Emiliani, F. Intonti, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy of a single GaAs quantum wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3500-3502 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. Van Bladel, "Some remarks on Green's dyadic for infinite space," IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-9, 563-566 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (5)

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, Ch. Lienau, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Femtosecond near-field spectroscopy: carrier relaxation and transport in single quantum wires," J. Microsc. 202, 229-240 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. von Freymann, Ch. Adelmann, G. Scheiber, Th. Schimmel, and M. Wegener, "The depolarization near-field scanning optical microscope: comparison of experiment and theory," J. Microsc. 194, 491-494 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, W. Langbein, and J. M. Hvam, "Polarization contrast in reflection near-field optical microscopy with uncoated fibre tips," J. Microsc. 194, 500-506 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin "3D simulations of the experimental signal measured in near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 194, 235-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Richter, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Time-resolved near-field optics: exciton transport in semiconductor nanostructures," J. Microsc. 194, 393-400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Lakhtakia, "Macroscopic theory of the coupled dipole approximation method," Opt. Commun. 79, 1-5 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

O. Keller, "Local fields in the electrodynamics of mesoscopic media," Phys. Rep. 268, 85-262 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

A. A. Maradudin and D. L. Mills, "Scattering and absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a semi-infinite medium in the presence of surface roughness," Phys. Rev. B 11, 1392-1415 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Lienau, A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, D. Heinrich, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Nanoscale mapping of confinement potentials in single semiconductor quantum wires by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 58, 2045-2049 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Emiliani, T. Guenther, and Ch. Lienau, "Ultrafast near-field spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional transport in a single quantum wire," Phys. Rev. B 61, R10583-R10586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Self-consistent model for second-harmonic near-field microscopy," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11139-11150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi and V. Z. Lozovski, "Second harmonic scanning optical microscopy of individual nanostructures," Phys. Rev. B 65, 235420 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Optical near-field response of semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13715-13725 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hanewinkel, A. Knorr, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, "Near-field dynamics of excitonic wave packets in semiconductor quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 60, 8975-8983 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (3)

A. Castiaux, C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and J. P. Vigneron, "Electrodynamics in complex systems: application to near-field probing of optical microresonators," Phys. Rev. E 54, 5752-5760 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin and N. B. Piller, "Electromagnetic scattering in polarizable backgrounds," Phys. Rev. E 58, 3909-3915 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Paulus and O. J. F. Martin, "Green's tensor technique for scattering in 2D stratified media," Phys. Rev. E 63, 066615 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Richter, G. Behme, M. Süptitz, Ch. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Ramsteiner, R. Nötzel, and K. H. Ploog, "Real-space transfer and trapping of carriers in a single GaAs quantum wire studied by near-field optical spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2145-2148 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Levy, V. Nikitin, J. M. Kikkawa, A. Cohen, N. Samarth, R. Garcia, and D. D. Awschalom, "Spatiotemporal near-field spin microscopy in patterned magnetic heterostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1948-1951 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

J. M. Elson and R. H. Ritchie, "Diffuse scattering and surface plasmon generation at a rough dielectric surface," Phys. Status Solidi B 62, 461-469 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Physica E (Amsterdam) (1)

V. Lozovski, Yu. Nazarok, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field imaging of pyramid-like nano-particles at a surface," Physica E (Amsterdam) 11, 323-331 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. D. Yaghjian, "Electric dyadic Green's functions in the source region," Proc. IEEE 68, 248-263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J.-J. Greffet and R. Carminati, "Image formation in near-field optics," Prog. Surf. Sci. 56, 133-237 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

C. Girard and A. Dereux, "Near-field optics theories," Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657-699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, C. Joachim, and S. Gauthier, "The physics of the near-field," Rep. Prog. Phys. 63, 893-938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

O. Keller, M. Xiao, and S. Bozhevolnyi, "Configurational resonances in optical near-field microscopy: a rigorous point-dipole approach," Surf. Sci. 280, 217-230 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D.W.Pohl and D.Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, 1993).

A. A. Abrikosov, L. P. Gor'kov, and I. Ye. Dzyaloshinskii, Quantum Field Theoretical Methods in Statistical Physics (Pergamon, 1965).

E. M. Lifshitz and L. P. Pitaevskii, Statistical Physics, Part 2, Vol. 9 of Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1980).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Near-field optics of nanostructured surfaces," in Optics of Nanostructured Materials, V.M.Markel and T.F.George, eds. (Wiley, 2001), pp. 73-142.

M. A. Paesler and P. J. Moyer, Near Field Optics (Wiley, 1996).

J. B. Stark, U. Mohideen, E. Betzig, and R. E. Slusher, "Time-resolved nonlinear near-field optical microscopy of semiconductor microdisks," in Ultrafast Phenomena IX, Springer Series in Chemical Physics (Springer, 1996), pp. 349-350.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the imaging geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Different types of Green functions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field images at x x polarization. a, corresponds to z p = 0.1 λ ; b, corresponds to z p = 0.3 λ ; c, corresponds to z p = 0.5 λ . X = x λ , Y = y λ , λ = 700 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near-field images at x y polarization. a, corresponds to z p = 0.1 λ ; b, corresponds to z p = 0.3 λ ; c, corresponds to z p = 0.5 λ . X = x λ , Y = y λ , λ = 700 nm .

Equations (36)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = n m exp ( x 2 + y 2 2 σ s 2 z 2 2 σ z 2 ) ,
χ i j ( R ) = K i j exp ( x 2 + y 2 4 σ s 2 z 2 4 σ z 2 ) ,
W = V S d R G ( R d , R , ω ) J ( R , ω ) 2 .
W = G i i ( R d , R 0 , ω ) 2 V S d R X i j ( R , ω ) E j ( 0 ) ( R , ω ) 2 ,
J ( R , ω ) = X ( R , ω ) E ( 0 ) ( R , ω ) .
W = const × N ( i j ) ( R p , ω ) E j ( 0 ) ( R 0 , ω ) 2 ,
N ( i j ) ( R p , ω ) = V S d R X i j ( R , R p , ω ) 2 .
E i ( R ) = E i ( I ) ( R ) V S d R G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) E l ( R ) χ p V p d R G i l ( + ) ( R , R ) E l ( R ) ,
E k ( R ) = V s d R G k j ( + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) E l ( R ) .
E i ( R ) = E i ( I ) ( R ) V S d R { G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) χ p V p d R G i k ( + ) ( R , R ) G k j ( + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) } E l ( R ) .
V p d R F ( R ) V p F ( R p ) ,
E i ( R ) = E i ( I ) ( R ) V S d R R i j ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) E l ( R ) ,
R i j ( R , R ) = G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) V p χ p G i k ( + ) ( R , R p ) G k j ( + ) ( R p , R ) ,
E i ( R ) = E i ( I ) ( R ) V S d R R i j ( R , R ) X j l ( R ) E l ( I ) ( R ) ,
X j l ( R ) = χ j k ( R ) [ δ k l + S k l ( R ) ] 1 ,
S k l ( R ) = V s d R R k m ( R , R ) χ m l ( R ) ,
S k l ( R ) = F k l ( + + ) ( R ) χ p V p G k m ( + ) ( R , R p ) F m l ( + ) ( R p ) ,
F m l ( + ) ( R ) = V S d R G m n ( + ) ( R , R ) χ n l ( R ) ,
F k l ( + + ) ( R ) = V S d R G k m ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ m l ( R ) .
G ( + ) ( r , r ) = 2 k 0 2 ε + 1 D ( 0 ) ( r , r ) ,
G ( + ) ( r , r ) = 2 k 0 2 ε + 1 D ( 0 ) ( r z , r z ) ,
r z = ( x , y , z ) , r z = ( x , y , z ) ,
G ( + + ) ( r , r ) = k 0 2 ε D ( 0 ) ( r , r ) + k 0 2 D ( 0 ) ( r M , r ) M .
D ( 0 ) ( r , r ) = 1 4 π [ 1 k 0 2 R 3 U 3 k 0 2 R 3 e R e R ] ,
M = 1 ε 1 + ε 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 ,
F i l ( + ) ( R ) = V S d R G i j ( + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) G i j ( + ) ( R , 0 ) V S d R χ j l ( R ) = 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z G i j ( + ) ( R , 0 ) K j l .
E ( R ) = i ω μ 0 lim δ 0 V V δ d R G ( R , R ) J ( R ) 1 i ω μ 0 L J ( R ) ,
F i l ( + + ) ( R ) = V S V δ d R G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) + χ i l ( R δ ) δ i z δ l z .
I = V S V δ d R G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) = V S d R ϴ ( R ) G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) ,
ϴ ( R ) = { 0 , when R V δ 1 , when R V δ } ,
I = V S d R ϴ ̃ ( R ) G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) ,
ϴ ̃ ( R ) = exp { R 0 R R } , R 0 = V δ 3 .
I = V S d R exp { R 0 R ¯ R } G i j ( + + ) ( R , R ) χ j l ( R ) G i j ( + + ) ( R , 0 ) e R 0 R V S d R ¯ χ j l ( R ) .
F i l ( + + ) ( R ) = χ i l ( R δ ) δ i z δ l z + 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z e R 0 R G i j ( + + ) ( R , 0 ) K j l .
S i l ( R ) = χ i l ( R ) δ i z δ l z + 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z e R 0 R G i j ( + + ) ( R , 0 ) K j l 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z V p χ p G i k ( + ) ( R , R p ) G k j ( + ) ( R p , 0 ) K j l .
X i l ( R ) = χ i k ( R ) [ δ k l + χ i l ( R ) δ i z δ l z + 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z e R 0 R G i j ( + + ) ( R , 0 ) K j l 4 π 3 2 σ s 2 σ z V p χ p G i k ( + ) ( R , R p ) G k j ( + ) ( R p , 0 ) K j l ] 1 .

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