Abstract

A study was initiated to understand requirements for widening and flattening the gain spectra of tellurite-based glasses for their application as new gain media for photonic devices. For this purpose, two Raman active components, WO3 and P2O5, were added either separately or jointly to a TeO2BaOSrONb2O5 (TBSN) glass system, and the Raman spectral evolution in response to this addition was studied. Raman scattering cross sections of the TBSN glasses were increased with an increase in the WO3 content and decreased with an increase in the P2O5 content. The Raman intensity and bandwidth increased when WO3 and P2O5 were jointly added in TBSN. The bandwidths of the Raman gain coefficient spectra of the present tellurite glasses were more than twice that of a conventional TeO2Bi2O3ZnONa2O glass and 70% larger than that of silica glass. The new glasses are expected to be candidates for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  22. C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, "Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO3 added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 121122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Thermal and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 based glasses: new broadband Raman gain media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5564-5571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite glasses for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161109-161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221109-221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

G. Senthil Murugan and Y. Ohishi, "TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: a new glass system for waveguide devices applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 341, 86-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, and Y. Ohishi, "Raman spectroscopic studies of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: structure-property correlations," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2437-2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Gargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345&346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. V. R. Chowdari and P. Pramoda Kumari, "Raman spectroscopic study of ternary silver tellurite glasses," Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 327-342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of MO-TeO2 (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener and P. N. Sen, "Theory for the first-order vibrational spectra of disordered solids," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1928-1933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, "Raman scattering selection rule breaking and density of states in amorphous materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 222-225 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Armand, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blin, A.

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bürger, H.

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

Chowdari, B. V. R.

B. V. R. Chowdari and P. Pramoda Kumari, "Raman spectroscopic study of ternary silver tellurite glasses," Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 327-342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couzi, M.

C. Rivero, R. Stegeman, M. Couzi, D. Talaga, T. Cardinal, K. Richardson, and G. Stegeman, "Resolved discrepancies between visible spontaneous Raman cross-section and direct near-infrared Raman gain measurements in TeO2-based glasses," Opt. Express 13, 4759-4769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Gargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345&346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P.

Doclot, O.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fayon, F.

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener and P. N. Sen, "Theory for the first-order vibrational spectra of disordered solids," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1928-1933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gammon, R. W.

R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, "Raman scattering selection rule breaking and density of states in amorphous materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 222-225 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gargin, E.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Gargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345&346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geils, R. H.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gugov, I.

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Hannon, A. C.

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herreillat, D. C.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, U.

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ibanez, A.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

M. N. Islam, "Overview of Raman amplification in telecommunications," in Raman Amplification in Telecommunications, M.N.Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1-34.
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

Jankovic, L.

Jose, R.

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, "Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO3 added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 121122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Thermal and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 based glasses: new broadband Raman gain media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5564-5571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jóvári, P.

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kumari, P. Pramoda

B. V. R. Chowdari and P. Pramoda Kumari, "Raman spectroscopic study of ternary silver tellurite glasses," Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 327-342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Lines, M. E.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, K. B.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, H.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. E.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mochida, N.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of MO-TeO2 (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

Mosby, W. J.

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. Senthil

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221109-221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite glasses for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161109-161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan and Y. Ohishi, "TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: a new glass system for waveguide devices applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 341, 86-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, and Y. Ohishi, "Raman spectroscopic studies of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: structure-property correlations," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2437-2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, "Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO3 added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 121122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Thermal and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 based glasses: new broadband Raman gain media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5564-5571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite glasses for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161109-161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221109-221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, and Y. Ohishi, "Raman spectroscopic studies of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: structure-property correlations," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2437-2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan and Y. Ohishi, "TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: a new glass system for waveguide devices applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 341, 86-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of MO-TeO2 (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Philippot, E.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

Rivero, C.

Rodriguez, V.

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Gargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345&346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sabadel, J. C.

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saout, G. L.

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

Sekiya, T.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of MO-TeO2 (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sen, P. N.

F. L. Galeener and P. N. Sen, "Theory for the first-order vibrational spectra of disordered solids," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1928-1933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shikano, K.

Shimizu, M.

Shuker, R.

R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, "Raman scattering selection rule breaking and density of states in amorphous materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 222-225 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soejima, A.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G.

Stegeman, R.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, C. Lee, and R. K. Jain, "Development of simulated Raman spectrum in single mode silica fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 1, 652-657 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, "Fundamentals of Raman amplification in fibers," in Raman Amplification for Telecommunication, M.N.Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 35-59.
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

R. Jose, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Thermal and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 based glasses: new broadband Raman gain media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5564-5571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221109-221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite glasses for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161109-161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Talaga, D.

Tonokawa, M.

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tynes, A. R.

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vaills, Y.

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. H. Stolen, E. P. Ippen, and A. R. Tynes, "Raman oscillation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 62-64 (1972).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Galeener, J. C. Mikkelsen, Jr., R. H. Geils, and W. J. Mosby, "The relative Raman cross-sections of vitreous SiO2, GeO2, B2O3 and P2O5," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 34-36 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Tellurite glasses for ultrabroadband fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161109-161111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Senthil Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Phospho-tellurite glasses containing heavy metal oxides for ultrabroad band fiber Raman amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 221109-221111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose and Y. Ohishi, "Enhanced Raman gain coefficients and bandwidths in P2O5 and WO3 added tellurite glasses for Raman gain media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 121122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Senthil Murugan, and Y. Ohishi, "Raman spectroscopic studies of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: structure-property correlations," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2437-2442 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (9)

G. Senthil Murugan and Y. Ohishi, "TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 glasses: a new glass system for waveguide devices applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 341, 86-92 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Shibata, M. Horiguchi, and T. Edahiro, "Raman spectra of binary high silica glasses and fibers containing GeO2, P2O5 and B2O3," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 45, 115-126 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Lines, A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, and K. B. Lyons, "Absolute Raman intensities in glasses: II Germania based heavy metal oxides and global criteria," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 89, 163-180 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Miller, K. Nassau, K. B. Lyons, and M. E. Lines, "The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 99, 289-307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, A. Ohtsuka, and M. Tonokawa, "Raman spectra of MO1/2-TeO2 (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 128-144 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Ohtsuka, "Raman spectra of MO-TeO2 (M=Mg, Sr, Ba, and Zn) glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 106-114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekiya, N. Mochida, and A. Soejima, "Raman spectra of binary tellurite glasses containing tri- or tetra-valent cations," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 191, 115-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Rivero, K. Richardson, R. Stegeman, G. Stegeman, T. Cardinal, E. Gargin, M. Couzi, and V. Rodriguez, "Quantifying Raman gain coefficients in tellurite glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345&346, 396-401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Jose, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, "Thermal and optical properties of TeO2-BaO-SrO-Nb2O5 based glasses: new broadband Raman gain media," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 5564-5571 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

U. Hoppe, I. Gugov, H. Bürger, P. Jóvári, and A. C. Hannon, "Structure of tellurite glasses--effect of K2O5 and P2O5 studied by diffraction," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, 2365-2386 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

G. L. Saout, P. Simon, F. Fayon, A. Blin, and Y. Vaills, "Raman and infrared study of (PbO)x(P2O5)(1−x) glasses," J. Raman Spectrosc. 33, 740-746 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. C. Sabadel, P. Armand, D. C. Herreillat, P. Baldeck, O. Doclot, A. Ibanez, and E. Philippot, "Structural and nonlinear optical characterizations of tellurium oxide based glasses: TeO2-BaO-TiO2," J. Solid State Chem. 132, 411-419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

B. V. R. Chowdari and P. Pramoda Kumari, "Raman spectroscopic study of ternary silver tellurite glasses," Mater. Res. Bull. 34, 327-342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. L. Galeener and P. N. Sen, "Theory for the first-order vibrational spectra of disordered solids," Phys. Rev. B 17, 1928-1933 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Shuker and R. W. Gammon, "Raman scattering selection rule breaking and density of states in amorphous materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 222-225 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. N. Islam, "Overview of Raman amplification in telecommunications," in Raman Amplification in Telecommunications, M.N.Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 1-34.
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, "Fundamentals of Raman amplification in fibers," in Raman Amplification for Telecommunication, M.N.Islam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2004), pp. 35-59.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reduced spectra of (a) 90 Te O 2 10 W O 3 ; (b) 90 Te O 2 10 P 2 O 5 ; (c) 78 Te O 2 3.5 Ba O 10.5 Sr O 8 Nb 2 O 5 fitted to multiple Gaussian functions. The spectra were recorded at an excitation of 532 nm . Refer to the text for the assignment of the individual Gaussian bands.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reduced spectra of (a) TBSN and (b) TBSN–12P–10W recorded at 488, 532, 633, and 785 nm for comparison with the resonant contribution in the scattered spectrum. The error bars indicate the uncertainty in the Raman intensity measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reduced spectra of TBSN W O 3 glass system (a) recorded at 532 nm and (b) recorded at 633 nm . (c) Reduced spectra of 68 Te O 2 3.5 Ba O 10.5 Sr O 8 Nb 2 O 5 10 W O 3 fitted to multiple Gaussian functions. Refer to the text for the assignment of the individual Gaussian bands.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reduced spectra of TBSN P 2 O 5 glass system (a) recorded at 532 nm and (b) at 633 nm . (c) Reduced spectra of 66 Te O 2 3.5 Ba O 10.5 Sr O 8 Nb 2 O 5 12 P 2 O 5 fitted to multiple Gaussian functions. Refer to the text for the assignment of the individual Gaussian bands.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reduced Raman spectra of (a) TBSN glasses added with 6 mol. % W O 3 and P 2 O 5 varied from 0 to 16 mol. % in steps of 4 mol. % . (b) TBSN glasses with 8 mol. % P 2 O 5 , (c) with 12 mol. % P 2 O 5 , (d) with 16 mol. % P 2 O 5 added. From (b) to (d) the W O 3 content was varied from 0 to 10 mol. % in steps of 2 mol. % .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated gain coefficient spectrum of Te O 2 Bi 2 O 3 Zn O Na 2 O , TBSN 10 W O 3 , TBSN 6 W O 3 16 P 2 O 5 compared with the gain coefficient spectrum of silica glass.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Increase in the Raman Scattering Cross Section and Peak Intensities of TBSN Glass on W O 3 Addition

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relative Increase in the Raman Scattering Cross Section and Peak Intensities of TBSN Glass on P 2 O 5 Addition

Tables Icon

Table 3 Relative Increase in the Raman Scattering Cross Section and Peak Intensities of TBSN Glass on Addition of W O 3 and P 2 O 5

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( ω ) = ω N ( ω , T ) + 1 1 ( ω o ω ) 4 I ( ω ) ,
F R = ( 1 + n S ) 4 n Si 2 ( 1 + n Si ) 4 n S 2 ,
F A = n S 2 n Si 2 .
G = σ o λ s 3 c 2 h n 2 ,
λ s = 10 7 ( ω o ω ) .
σ o = σ T 1 + N ( ω , T ) = σ T [ 1 + ( e ω k B T 1 ) ] 1 .
G = σ T λ s 3 c 2 h n 2 [ 1 + ( e ω k B T 1 ) ] 1 .

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