Abstract

Linear and third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) phenomena have been studied in three thiophene-containing polyimine classes. A complete characterization has been performed determining the real part of the refractive index n, its imaginary part k, and the third-order NLO value χ(3). The NLO values derived for the polymers are related to both the electronic property and backbone conformational arrangement, affecting the overall conjugation. The highest third-order NLO coefficient has been measured on a very homogeneous spin-coated film of dialkyl substituted polyazine, showing a value of 5.2×1011esu at 1710nm, where the material is essentially transparent.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

X. H. Wang, D. P. West, N. B. McKoewn, and T. A. King, "Determining the cubic susceptibility chi((3)) of films or glasses by the Maker fringe method: a representative study of spin-coated films of copper phthalocyanine derivation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1895-1903 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. S. Nalwa, J. Mukai, and A. Kakuta, "Effect of the pi-bonding sequence on third-order optical nonlinearity evaluated by ab initio calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10766-10774 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

C. J. Yang and S. A. Jenekhe, "Effects of structure on refractive-index of conjugated polyimines," Chem. Mater. 6, 196-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Miyano, T. Nishiwaki, and A. Tomioka, "A simple and accurate method to determine the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of thin-films," Opt. Commun. 91, 501-508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1985 (1)

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, "Third harmonic generation in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352-2363 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, C. Cojan, and C. Flytzanis, "Non-linear optical-properties of one-dimensional semiconductors and conjugated polymers," Phys. Rev. B 17, 776-789 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adant, C.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, C. Cojan, and C. Flytzanis, "Non-linear optical-properties of one-dimensional semiconductors and conjugated polymers," Phys. Rev. B 17, 776-789 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P.

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berdowski, J.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bethune, D. S.

Bigot, Y. Y.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bjørnholm, T.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blom, F. C.

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bossahard, C.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Brédas, J. L.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buchalter, B.

Charra, F.

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

Cojan, C.

G. P. Agrawal, C. Cojan, and C. Flytzanis, "Non-linear optical-properties of one-dimensional semiconductors and conjugated polymers," Phys. Rev. B 17, 776-789 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Comoretto, D.

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cuniberti, C.

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D'Amore, F.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dellepiane, G.

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dell'Erba, C.

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Destri, S.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Giulio, M.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dumur, F.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Era, M.

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Euler, W. V.

W. V. Euler, "Polyazines: synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and conducting properties," in Conducting Polymers: Transport, Photophysics and Applications, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Wiley, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 719-740.

Facchini, G.

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fichou, D.

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

Flytzanis, C.

G. P. Agrawal, C. Cojan, and C. Flytzanis, "Non-linear optical-properties of one-dimensional semiconductors and conjugated polymers," Phys. Rev. B 17, 776-789 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Frere, P.

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuks-Janczarek, I.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garito, A. F.

R. F. Shi and A. F. Garito, in Characterization Technique and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M.G.Kuzyk and C.W.Dirk, eds. (Dekker, 1998).

Garnier, F.

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

Geisler, T.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grevea, D. R.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gubler, U.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hudhomme, P.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jayaraman, M.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jenehke, S. A.

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jenekhe, S. A.

C. J. Yang and S. A. Jenekhe, "Effects of structure on refractive-index of conjugated polyimines," Chem. Mater. 6, 196-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, "Third harmonic generation in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352-2363 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

Kakuta, A.

H. S. Nalwa, J. Mukai, and A. Kakuta, "Effect of the pi-bonding sequence on third-order optical nonlinearity evaluated by ab initio calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10766-10774 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamiyana, K.

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kanatzidis, M. G.

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

Kishida, H.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kityk, I. V.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokubo, H.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Moigne, J.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

LeGoff, E.

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luc, J.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luzzati, S.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. E.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McCullough, R. D.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McElvain, J.

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McKoewn, N. B.

Meredith, G. R.

Messier, J.

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, "Third harmonic generation in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352-2363 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

Meth, M. S.

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyano, K.

K. Miyano, T. Nishiwaki, and A. Tomioka, "A simple and accurate method to determine the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of thin-films," Opt. Commun. 91, 501-508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moroni, M.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, J.

H. S. Nalwa, J. Mukai, and A. Kakuta, "Effect of the pi-bonding sequence on third-order optical nonlinearity evaluated by ab initio calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10766-10774 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. S. Nalwa, J. Mukai, and A. Kakuta, "Effect of the pi-bonding sequence on third-order optical nonlinearity evaluated by ab initio calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10766-10774 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, "Nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated materials," in Conducting Polymers: Transport, Photophysics and Applications, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Wiley, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 261-363, and references therein.

Nasi, L.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nishiwaki, T.

K. Miyano, T. Nishiwaki, and A. Tomioka, "A simple and accurate method to determine the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of thin-films," Opt. Commun. 91, 501-508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oswald, L.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pasini, M.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelizzi, C.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Persoon, A.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petersenc, J. C.

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pham, A.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phu, X. N.

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, B. M.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pietralunga, S. M.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poma, Th. J. A.

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porzio, W.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Predieri, G.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rigato, V.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roncali, J.

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sahraoui, B.

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Shi, R. F.

R. F. Shi and A. F. Garito, in Characterization Technique and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M.G.Kuzyk and C.W.Dirk, eds. (Dekker, 1998).

Shieh, S.

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tackx, P.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuura, S.

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Tomioka, A.

K. Miyano, T. Nishiwaki, and A. Tomioka, "A simple and accurate method to determine the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of thin-films," Opt. Commun. 91, 501-508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tykwinski, R. R.

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Schoot, J. B. P.

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanderzeele, H.

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vignali, C.

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, T.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Wautelet, P.

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

West, D. P.

Wudl, F.

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. J.

C. J. Yang and S. A. Jenekhe, "Effects of structure on refractive-index of conjugated polyimines," Chem. Mater. 6, 196-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zappettini, A.

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Kishida, K. Hirota, T. Wakabayashi, H. Okamoto, H. Kokubo, and T. Yamamoto, "Third-order nonlinearity in regio-controlled polythiophene films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

C. J. Yang and S. A. Jenekhe, "Effects of structure on refractive-index of conjugated polyimines," Chem. Mater. 6, 196-203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Jenehke, C. J. Yang, H. Vanderzeele, and M. S. Meth, "Cubic nonlinear optics of polymer thin-films-effects of structure and dispersion on the nonlinear optical-properties of aromatic Schiff-base polymers," Chem. Mater. 3, 985-987 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoon, and B. M. Pierce, "Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects," Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 94, 243-278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. D'Amore, M. Di Giulio, S. M. Pietralunga, A. Zappettini, L. Nasi, V. Rigato, and M. Martinelli, "Sputtered stoichiometric TeO2 glass films: Dispersion of linear and nonlinear optical properties," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1654-1661 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. S. Nalwa, J. Mukai, and A. Kakuta, "Effect of the pi-bonding sequence on third-order optical nonlinearity evaluated by ab initio calculations," J. Phys. Chem. 99, 10766-10774 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

R. R. Tykwinski, U. Gubler, R. E. Martin, F. Diederich, C. Bossahard, and P. Günter, "Structure-property relationships in third-order nonlinear optical chromophores," J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 4451-4465 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Fuks-Janczarek, J. Luc, B. Sahraoui, F. Dumur, P. Hudhomme, J. Berdowski, and I. V. Kityk, "Third-order nonlinear optical figure of merits for conjugated TTF-quinone molecules," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 10179-10183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

K. Kamiyana, M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, "Third-harmonic generation in highly oriented poly(2,5-dimethoxy-P-phenylenevinylene) film prepared by use of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 29, L840-L842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (3)

C. Wang, S. Shieh, E. LeGoff, and M. G. Kanatzidis, "Synthesis and characterization of a new conjugated aromatic poly(azomethine) derivative based on the 3′,4′-dibutyl-alpha-terthiophene building block," Macromolecules 29, 3147-3156 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Wautelet, M. Moroni, L. Oswald, J. Le Moigne, A. Pham, Y. Y. Bigot, and S. Luzzati, "Rigid rod conjugated polymers for nonlinear optics. 2. Synthesis and characterization of phenylene-ethynylene oligomers," Macromolecules 29, 446-455 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Destri, M. Pasini, C. Pelizzi, W. Porzio, G. Predieri, and C. Vignali, "Synthesis and characterization of conjugated polyazines and polyazomethines containing the thienylene moiety and flexible hydrocarbon side chains," Macromolecules 32, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Miyano, T. Nishiwaki, and A. Tomioka, "A simple and accurate method to determine the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of thin-films," Opt. Commun. 91, 501-508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. C. Blom, A. Driessen, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, J. B. P. van Schoot, and Th. J. A. Poma, "Third harmonic generation as a rapid selection tool for organic materials for nonlinear integrated optics devices," Opt. Mater. 12, 327-331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Kajzar and J. Messier, "Third harmonic generation in liquids," Phys. Rev. A 32, 2352-2363 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. P. Agrawal, C. Cojan, and C. Flytzanis, "Non-linear optical-properties of one-dimensional semiconductors and conjugated polymers," Phys. Rev. B 17, 776-789 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, "Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21-23 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (4)

J. McElvain, S. Tatsuura, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, "Linear and nonlinear optical spectra of polyazomethines fabricated by chemical vapor deposition," Synth. Met. 95, 101-105 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Bjørnholm, D. R. Grevea, T. Geisler, J. C. Petersenc, M. Jayaraman, and R. D. McCullough, "Saturation effects in the nonlinear optical response of regioregular, highly conjugated poly(3-alkyl-thiophene) thin films," Synth. Met. 84, 531-532 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Sahraoui, X. N. Phu, P. Baldeck, J. M. Nunzi, P. Frere, and J. Roncali, "Third-order nonlinear optical properties of new dithienylethylenes," Synth. Met. 109, 315-319 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. D'Amore, A. Zappettini, G. Facchini, S. M. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, C. Dell'Erba, C. Cuniberti, D. Comoretto, and G. Dellepiane, "Third order optical characterisation of a pi-conjugated polydiacetylene by Maker fringes technique," Synth. Met. 127, 143-146 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

MATSTUDIO modeling release 3.1, Accelrys Inc., 2004.

CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th ed., D.R.Lide, ed. (CRC Press, 1998), pp. 3-110.

W. V. Euler, "Polyazines: synthesis, structure, spectroscopy and conducting properties," in Conducting Polymers: Transport, Photophysics and Applications, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Wiley, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 719-740.

D. Fichou, F. Garnier, F. Charra, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, "Oligothiophenes," in Nonlinear Optics, R.Hann and D.Bloor, eds. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1987), Vol. 69, p. 176.

S.R.Marder, J.E.Sohn, and G.D.Stucky, eds., Materials for Nonlinear Optics: Chemical Perspectives (American Chemical Society, 1991).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa, "Nonlinear optical properties of π-conjugated materials," in Conducting Polymers: Transport, Photophysics and Applications, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Wiley, 1997), Vol. 4, pp. 261-363, and references therein.

R. F. Shi and A. F. Garito, in Characterization Technique and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M.G.Kuzyk and C.W.Dirk, eds. (Dekker, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maker fringes technique experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimized molecular models of the related polymers: PAM2A (top), PAM2B (middle), and PAZ2 (bottom).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dispersions of n (solid curve) and k (dotted curves) in the case of PAM1A (bold curves) and PAM2A.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersions of n (solid lines) and k (dotted lines) for PAM1B (bold lines) and PAM2B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the dispersions of k (solid curves) and in resonance χ ( 3 ) (dotted curves) for PAM1B (bold curves) and PAM2B repectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dispersions of n (solid curves) and k (dotted curves) in the case of PAZ1 (bold curves) and PAZ2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the dispersion of k (solid curves) and χ ( 3 ) (dotted curves) in the case of PAZ1 (bold curves) and PAZ2 (thin curves).

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Selected Properties of the Polymers

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Table 2 Selected Properties of Fractioned Samples of PAZ2

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Table 3 Experimental Data Relating to the Absorption Measurements and Obtained Absorption Coefficients at λ = 1550 nm

Equations (6)

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χ sample ( 3 ) = 2 π χ quartz 3 l c quartz L sample I 3 ω ( sample ) I 3 ω ( quartz ) ,
χ sample ( 3 ) = 2 π χ quartz 3 l c quartz I 3 ω ( sample ) I 3 ω ( quartz ) α 2 1 exp ( α L 2 ) ,
χ ( 3 ) ( ω ) 1 E g 2 ( 3 ω ) 2 + i Γ g ,
I t = I 0 ( 1 R ) exp ( α L ) ,
α diluted = α CS 2 + polymer α CS 2 .
α polymer = α diluted ( W sol W polymer ) ( ρ polymer ρ CS 2 ) ,

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