Abstract

We study near-resonant femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of dipicolinic acid (DPA) by exciting the molecular system with a pair of visible pump and Stokes pulses and probing the resultant molecular coherence with a time-delayed UV probe pulse. We record the generated Stokes and anti-Stokes pulse energies as functions of DPA concentration. We observe that the CARS signal has a maximum and the power-law dependence is steeper than the well-known quadratic one. We present a model that describes the propagation of the generated signal through the medium. From this model, we derive an analytical expression that closely agrees with our experimental data. Since DPA serves as a marker molecule for bacterial spores, our results help to establish the detectability limits for a lethal spore dosage when the present technique is applied.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, 'Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,' Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Petrov, V. Yakovlev, A. Sokolov, and M. Scully, 'Detection of Bacillus subtilis spores in water by means of broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy,' Opt. Express 13, 9537-9542 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Lang and M. Motzkus, 'Single-shot femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering thermometry,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 340-344 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, 'Coherent transient enhancement of optically induced resonant transitions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1995

1987

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1970

M. D. Crisp, 'Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,' Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, D. A.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ascher, M. S.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, J. G.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bronk, B. V.

Caster, A. G.

S. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, 'Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,' Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crisp, M. D.

M. D. Crisp, 'Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,' Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, 'Coherent transient enhancement of optically induced resonant transitions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Combustion Science and Technology) (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

Efrima, S.

Eitzen, E.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friedlander, A. M.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gerberding, J.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gord, J. R.

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Graefe, S.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauer, J.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, D. A.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inglesby, T. V.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kalugin, N. G.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kattawar, G. W.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, W.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolomenskii, A. A.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lang, T.

Leone, S. R.

S. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, 'Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,' Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

S. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, 'Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,' Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lucht, R. P.

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDade, J.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T. R.

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motzkus, M.

Murawski, R. K.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nudelman, R.

Opatrny, T.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, 'Coherent transient enhancement of optically induced resonant transitions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterholm, M. T.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O'Toole, T.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parker, G.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perl, T. M.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pestov, D.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, G.

Pilloff, H.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quan, X.

Rebane, A.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, S.

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. K.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sariyanni, Z. E.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sautenkov, V. A.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M.

Scully, M. O.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siebert, T.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, 'Coherent transient enhancement of optically induced resonant transitions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A.

Sokolov, A. V.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonat, K.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

Zhi, M.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. P. Lucht, S. Roy, T. R. Meyer, and J. R. Gord, 'Femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurement of gas temperatures from frequency-spread dephasing of the Raman coherence,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. Leonhardt, W. Holzapfel, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, 'Terahertz quantum beats in molecular liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 133, 373-377 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Med. Assoc.

T. V. Inglesby, T. O'Toole, D. A. Henderson, J. G. Bartlett, M. S. Ascher, E. Eitzen, A. M. Friedlander, J. Gerberding, J. Hauer, J. Hughes, J. McDade, M. T. Osterholm, G. Parker, T. M. Perl, P. K. Russell, and K. Tonat, for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, 'Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for management,' J. Am. Med. Assoc. 287, 2236-2252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Huang, A. Dogariu, Y. Avitzour, R. K. Murawski, D. Pestov, M. Zhi, A. V. Sokolov, and M. O. Scully, 'Discrimination of dipicolinic acid and its interferents by femtosecond coherent Raman spectroscopy,' J. Appl. Phys. 100, 124912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

S. Lim, A. G. Caster, and S. R. Leone, 'Single-pulse phase-control interferometric coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy,' Phys. Rev. A 72, 041803 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Crisp, 'Propagation of small-area pulses of coherent light through a resonant medium,' Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604-1611 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, 'Coherent transient enhancement of optically induced resonant transitions,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 123004 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

D. Pestov, M. Zhi, Z. E. Sariyanni, N. G. Kalugin, A. A. Kolomenskii, R. K. Murawski, G. G. Paulus, V. A. Sautenkov, H. Schuessler, A. V. Sokolov, G. R. Welch, Y. V. Rostovtsev, T. Siebert, D. A. Akimov, S. Graefe, W. Kiefer, and M. O. Scully, 'Visible and UV coherent Raman spectroscopy of dipicolinic acid,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 14976-14981 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, G. W. Kattawar, R. P. Lucht, T. Opatrny, H. Pilloff, A. Rebane, A. V. Sokolov, and M. S. Zubairy, 'FAST CARS: engineering a laser spectroscopic technique for rapid identification of bacterial spores,' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 10994-11001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B.Schrader, ed., Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy (VCH, 1995).
[CrossRef]

M.Chergui, ed., Femtochemistry (World Scientific, 1996).

M.M.Martin and J.T.Hynes, eds., Femtochemistry and Femtobiology (Elsevier, 2004).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Combustion Science and Technology) (Gordon and Breach, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the experimental setup. OPA, optical parametric amplifier; D1, D2, D3, delay stages; SM, spherical mirror; UG11, UV bandpass filter; CCD, charge-coupled device. Inset, CARS and CSRS generation in a folded boxCARS geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CARS pulse energy as a function of probe pulse delay at different NaDPA concentrations. Sample, NaDPA solution in a quartz cuvette with 2 mm path. The pH value of the solution is about 14.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log–log plot of CARS pulse energy at the peak of the oscillation as a function of NaDPA concentration. The solid curve is the theoretical curve obtained with the phase-matching factor included; the dashed curve is the theoretical curve obtained with the assumption Δ k s = 0 ; at lower concentration, this curve has a slope of 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Log–log plot of CSRS pulse energy at the peak of the oscillation as a function of NaDPA concentration. The solid curve is the theoretical curve obtained with the phase-matching factor included; the dashed curve is the theoretical curve obtained with the assumption Δ k s = 0 ; at lower concentration, this curve has a slope of 2, as is the case of CARS signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithmic contour plot of the CARS signal spectrogram as a function of the probe laser delay, acquired with CCD from a 50 mM sample of DPA in H 2 O NaOH in a 100 μ m quartz cuvette. Exposure time is 10 s .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

CARS signal concentration dependence for NaDPA solution in a 100 μ m cell. The error is estimated from the three sets of data taken at each concentration; c is a constant.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption cross section of NaDPA solution in the UV range and the spectrum of the probe pulse (dashed curve). The absorption cross-section dependence on the wavelength is derived from the transmission measurements on 25 mM (square) and 50 mM (triangle) NaDPA solutions. The solid curve is an experimental result from a spectrophotometric measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive index of 50 and 100 mM NaDPA solution in UV range. Dashed curve, fitting curve for 50 mM NaDPA solution; dotted curve, fitting curve for 100 mM NaDPA solution; solid curve, fitting curve from the empirical equation for water (Ref. [17]).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E p ( z ) = E p ( 0 ) × e α p z N 2 ,
d d z E s ( z ) = 1 2 N [ α s E s ( z ) b ρ 12 E p ( z ) e i Δ k s z ] .
I s out = b ρ 12 2 I p in exp [ ( α p d 1 + α s d 3 ) N ] N 2 exp ( α p d 2 N ) + exp ( α s d 2 N ) 2 exp [ ( α p + α s ) d 2 N 2 ] cos ( Δ k s d 2 ) N 2 ( α s α p ) 2 4 + Δ k s 2 ,
n ( λ ) = 1.31279 + 59.8991 λ 30562.7 λ 2 + 5.11903 × 10 6 λ 3 .
n ( λ ) = 1.31279 + 65.8283 λ 35024.0 λ 2 + 6.03199 × 10 6 λ 3 .

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