Abstract

Nonlinear absorption of carbon disulfide (CS2) was studied in the wavelength region of 420-530nm by using Z-scan method with nanosecond pulses. Large nonlinear absorption was found in the short-wavelength region (420-460nm). The optical limiting properties of CS2 were also studied, and results showed that CS2 has good optical limiting capability in the 420-460nm region. The mechanism of the nonlinear absorption was analyzed by the temporal profile of pulses going through CS2. The large nonlinear absorption is believed to arise from a combination of two-photon absorption and the excited-state absorption induced by two-photon absorption.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. D. Ziegler and X. J. Jordanides, 'Two-photon absorption resonance effects in the third-order responses of transparent liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 270-280 (2002).

2001 (2)

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, 'Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, 'A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,' Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, 'Optical Kerr effects in liquids,' Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, 'Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,' Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine and J. A. Howe, 'Intensity-induced optical absorption cross section CS2,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 207-210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, 'Optical Kerr effects in liquids,' Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J. W.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, 'A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,' Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bondar, M. V.

R. S. Lepkowicz, C. M. Cirloganu, J. Fu, O. V. Przhonska, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, and A. D. Kachkovski, 'Femtosecond-to-nanosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of polymethine molecules,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2664-2685 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brant, M. C.

Brant, M. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Chaux, R.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Cirloganu, C. M.

Couris, S.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dombroskie, A. G.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, 'Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, O.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Fu, J.

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine and J. A. Howe, 'Intensity-induced optical absorption cross section CS2,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 207-210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

R. S. Lepkowicz, C. M. Cirloganu, J. Fu, O. V. Przhonska, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, and A. D. Kachkovski, 'Femtosecond-to-nanosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of polymethine molecules,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2664-2685 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, Y. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Investigation of optical limiting mechanisms in multi-walled carbon nanotubes,' Appl. Opt. 39, 1998-2001 (2000).

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

He, G. S.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, J.

Hermann, J. A.

Ho, P. P.

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, 'Optical Kerr effects in liquids,' Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Howe, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine and J. A. Howe, 'Intensity-induced optical absorption cross section CS2,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 207-210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.-Y.

Ishizawa, N.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

Ji, W.

Jordanides, X. J.

L. D. Ziegler and X. J. Jordanides, 'Two-photon absorption resonance effects in the third-order responses of transparent liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 270-280 (2002).

Kachkovski, A. D.

Kannan, R.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Khodja, S.

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Kleinschmidt, J.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Koudoumas, E.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lavorel, B.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

Lepkowicz, R. S.

Lim, J. H.

X. Sun, Y. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Investigation of optical limiting mechanisms in multi-walled carbon nanotubes,' Appl. Opt. 39, 1998-2001 (2000).

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, 'Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,' Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

McDonald, J. M.

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R. G.

McGlynn, S. P.

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Michaut, X.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ming, N.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

Potasek, M. J.

Prasad, P. N.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Przhonska, O. V.

R. S. Lepkowicz, C. M. Cirloganu, J. Fu, O. V. Przhonska, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, and A. D. Kachkovski, 'Femtosecond-to-nanosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of polymethine molecules,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2664-2685 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rabalais, J. W.

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Renard, M.

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rentsch, S.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Röckel, H.

Rogers, J. E.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Ross, T. S.

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, S.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, 'Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sankaran, B.

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Scherr, V.

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Slagle, J. E.

Slominsky, Y. L.

R. S. Lepkowicz, C. M. Cirloganu, J. Fu, O. V. Przhonska, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, and A. D. Kachkovski, 'Femtosecond-to-nanosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of polymethine molecules,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2664-2685 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stone, J.

Sun, X.

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Rogers, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (CRC press, 2003).

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

Suzuki, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

Tan, L.-S.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, 'Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,' Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tottleben, W.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Turu, M.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, 'A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,' Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vaia, R. A.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

R. S. Lepkowicz, C. M. Cirloganu, J. Fu, O. V. Przhonska, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, Y. L. Slominsky, and A. D. Kachkovski, 'Femtosecond-to-nanosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of polymethine molecules,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2664-2685 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, Y. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Investigation of optical limiting mechanisms in multi-walled carbon nanotubes,' Appl. Opt. 39, 1998-2001 (2000).

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelmi, B.

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

Xiong, Y.

Xu, F.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. S.

Yuan, L.

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, L. D.

L. D. Ziegler and X. J. Jordanides, 'Two-photon absorption resonance effects in the third-order responses of transparent liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 270-280 (2002).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, N. Ishizawa, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Nonlinear refraction in CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 78, 433-438 (2004).

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, 'Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,' Appl. Phys. B 69, 133-136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Kannan, G. S. He, L. Yuan, F. Xu, P. N. Prasad, A. G. Dombroskie, B. A. Reinhardt, J. W. Baur, R. A. Vaia, and L.-S. Tan, 'Diphenylaminofluorene-based two-photon-asorbing chromophores with various p-electron acceptors,' Chem. Mater. 13, 1896-1904 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. H. Lim, O. V. Przhonska, S. Khodja, S. Yang, T. S. Ross, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, 'Polymethine and squarylium molecules with large excited-state absorption,' Chem. Phys. 245, 79-97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Kleinschmidt, S. Rentsch, W. Tottleben, and B. Wilhelmi, 'Measurement of strong nonlinear absorption in stilbenecholoform solution, explained by the superposition of two-photon absorption and one-photon absorption from the excited state,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 24, 133-135 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Couris, M. Renard, O. Faucher, B. Lavorel, R. Chaux, E. Koudoumas, and X. Michaut, 'An experimental investigation of the nonlinear refractive index (n2) of carbon disulfide and toluene by spectral shearing interferometry and z-scan techniques,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 369, 318-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Ziegler and X. J. Jordanides, 'Two-photon absorption resonance effects in the third-order responses of transparent liquids,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 352, 270-280 (2002).

Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) (1)

J. W. Rabalais, J. M. McDonald, V. Scherr, and S. P. McGlynn, 'Electronic spectroscopy of isoelectronic molecules. II. Linear triatomic grouping containing sixteen valence electrons,' Chem. Rev. (Washington, D.C.) 71, 73-108 (1971).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, 'Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,' IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, N. Ming, and L. Hou, 'Investigation of the influence of finite aperture size on the z-scan transmittance curve,' J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 10, 431-439 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, N. Ishizawa, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, M. Turu, S. Sakakibara, and H. Kuroda, 'Two- and three-photon absorption in CS2,' Opt. Commun. 231, 431-436 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, 'Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,' Phys. Rev. A 137, 801 (1965).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, 'Optical Kerr effects in liquids,' Phys. Rev. A 20, 2170-2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. A. Giordmaine and J. A. Howe, 'Intensity-induced optical absorption cross section CS2,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 207-210 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, 'A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,' Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299-338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. L. Sutherland, M. E. Brant, D. G. McLean, J. E. Rogers, B. Sankaran, S. E. Kirkpatrick, and P. A. Fleitz, 'Excited state absorption in a strongly two-photon absorbing neat organic material,' in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 96 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CFF6.

R. L. Sutherland, Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (CRC press, 2003).

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