## Abstract

Fox–Li iteration-based algorithms form the core of steady-state design tools for high-power semiconductor lasers. The theoretical formalism is developed for Fox–Li iteration-based algorithms as applied to high-power lasers. This allows us to study their numerical properties, explain their behavior, and show the nature of the calculated approximate cavity modes. Lower-dimensional models are used to identify and explain the source of numerical instabilities and to find ways of improving the convergence rate of Fox–Li iteration algorithms. Finally, the results of the lower-dimensional analysis are verified by performing simulations of high-power tapered laser diodes in two dimensions using the finite-difference beam-propagation method.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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