Abstract

The mechanism of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions has been studied in bismuth borate glasses with a serial Yb3+ concentration. The analysis of the donor fluorescence decay with a low concentration has been used to determine the multipole character of the energy transfer. The energy-transfer microparameters were determined and used to calculate the migration-assisted energy-transfer rates on the basis of the hopping model, which are in agreement with those obtained by fitting the fluorescence decay curves. An efficient energy transfer from Yb3+:F522 to Er3+:I1124 in the bismuth borate glasses has been demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. H. Takebe, T. Murata, and K. Morinaga, 'Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb3+ in oxide glasses,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 681-687 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. I. Burshtein, 'Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,' Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).
  33. M. Yokota and O. Tanimoto, 'Effects of diffusion on energy transfer by resonance,' J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 22, 779-784 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. M. Lawson, E. E. Freed, and R. C. Powell, 'Models for energy transfer in solid II,' J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4171-4177 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  35. F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. M. Huo and P. K. Cheo, 'Modeling of passively Q-switched Er3+/Yb3+-co-doped clad-pumped fiber lasers,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 658-666 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

Y. M. Huo and P. K. Cheo, 'Modeling of passively Q-switched Er3+/Yb3+-co-doped clad-pumped fiber lasers,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 658-666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in bismuth borate glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 481-488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass of optical amplifier,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, N. L. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Becker, 'Thermal and optical properties of glasses of the system Bi2O3-B2O3,' Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. B. Saisudha and J. Ramakrishna, 'Optical absorption of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Dy3+ in bismuth borate glasses with large radiative transition probabilities,' Opt. Mater. 18, 403-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, 'Broad-band 1.5μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,' J. Lumin. 87-89, 670-672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. T. M. Ribeiro, A. R. Zanatta, L. A. O. Nunes, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, 'Optical spectroscopy of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2256-2260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, 'Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,' J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1990-2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. B. Saisudha, K. S. R. K. Rao, H. L. Bhat, and J. Ramakrishna, 'The fluorescence of Nd3+ in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses with large stimulated emission cross section,' J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4845-4853 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Takebe, T. Murata, and K. Morinaga, 'Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb3+ in oxide glasses,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 681-687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. M. Lawson, E. E. Freed, and R. C. Powell, 'Models for energy transfer in solid II,' J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4171-4177 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

W. Lenth and G. Hunber, 'Interionic energy transfer by electric multipole interaction in rare-earth pentaphosphates,' Phys. Rev. B 23, 3877-3885 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. K. Watts and H. J. Richter, 'Diffusion and transfer of optical excitation in YF3:Yb,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 1584-1589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Burshtein, 'Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,' Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).

1971

M. J. Weber, 'Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion-limited relaxation,' Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932-2938 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1967

M. Yokota and O. Tanimoto, 'Effects of diffusion on energy transfer by resonance,' J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 22, 779-784 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, 'Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,' J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, 'Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,' Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

E. M. Levin and C. L. McDaniel, 'The system Bi2O3,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 355-360 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1960

W. E. Blumberg, 'Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation caused by paramagnetic impurities,' Phys. Rev. 119, 79-84 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1953

D. L. Dexter, 'A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,' J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

C. T. M. Ribeiro, A. R. Zanatta, L. A. O. Nunes, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, 'Optical spectroscopy of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2256-2260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aguido, M.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bausa, L. E.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P.

P. Becker, 'Thermal and optical properties of glasses of the system Bi2O3-B2O3,' Cryst. Res. Technol. 38, 74-82 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

I.-I. Oprea, H. Hesse, and K. Betzler, 'Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuth-borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 28, 1136-1142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, H. L.

M. B. Saisudha, K. S. R. K. Rao, H. L. Bhat, and J. Ramakrishna, 'The fluorescence of Nd3+ in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses with large stimulated emission cross section,' J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4845-4853 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blumberg, W. E.

W. E. Blumberg, 'Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation caused by paramagnetic impurities,' Phys. Rev. 119, 79-84 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Braud, A.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buddhudu, S.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P.

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, A. I.

A. I. Burshtein, 'Hopping mechanism of energy transfer,' Sov. Phys. JETP 35, 882-885 (1972).

Bursukova, M. A.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

Cavalli, E.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. P.

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in bismuth borate glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 481-488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, P. K.

Y. M. Huo and P. K. Cheo, 'Modeling of passively Q-switched Er3+/Yb3+-co-doped clad-pumped fiber lasers,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 658-666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Courrol, L. C.

F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

da Vila, L. D.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dai, N. L.

Dai, S. X.

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, N. L. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass of optical amplifier,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, J. M.

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

de Waal, H.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, 'A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,' J. Chem. Phys. 21, 836-850 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, F.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Doualan, J. L.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehrt, D.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freed, E. E.

C. M. Lawson, E. E. Freed, and R. C. Powell, 'Models for energy transfer in solid II,' J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4171-4177 (1982).
[CrossRef]

French, V. A.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Garcia Sole, J.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gavalda, J.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

M. Laroche, S. Girard, J. K. Sahu, W. A. Clarkson, and J. Nillsson, 'Accurate efficiency evaluation of energy-transfer processes in phosphosilicate Er3+-Yb3+-co-doped fibers,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 195-202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guell, F.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, T.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, 'Broad-band 1.5μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,' J. Lumin. 87-89, 670-672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hesse, H.

I.-I. Oprea, H. Hesse, and K. Betzler, 'Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuth-borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 28, 1136-1142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Higashihata, M.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, 'Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,' J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L. L.

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, N. L. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass of optical amplifier,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. L.

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y. D.

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in bismuth borate glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 481-488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hunber, G.

W. Lenth and G. Hunber, 'Interionic energy transfer by electric multipole interaction in rare-earth pentaphosphates,' Phys. Rev. B 23, 3877-3885 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Y. M. Huo and P. K. Cheo, 'Modeling of passively Q-switched Er3+/Yb3+-co-doped clad-pumped fiber lasers,' IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 658-666 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. C.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inokuti, M.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, 'Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,' J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ito, S.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, 'Broad-band 1.5μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,' J. Lumin. 87-89, 670-672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jagosich, F. H.

F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, N. L. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass of optical amplifier,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kokta, M.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, Y.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Laroche, M.

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, E. E. Freed, and R. C. Powell, 'Models for energy transfer in solid II,' J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4171-4177 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

W. Lenth and G. Hunber, 'Interionic energy transfer by electric multipole interaction in rare-earth pentaphosphates,' Phys. Rev. B 23, 3877-3885 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Levin, E. M.

E. M. Levin and C. L. McDaniel, 'The system Bi2O3,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 355-360 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Longhi, S.

Lucas, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. D.

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, M. L. Huang, R. P. Chen, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ ions in bismuth borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 25, 271-278 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Chen, Y. D. Huang, and Z. D. Luo, 'Spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ in bismuth borate glasses,' Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 481-488 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massons, J.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, X.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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D. E. McCumber, 'Einstein relations connecting broadband emission and absorption spectra,' Phys. Rev. 136, A954-A957 (1964).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, C. L.

E. M. Levin and C. L. McDaniel, 'The system Bi2O3,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 355-360 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X. L.

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

C. T. M. Ribeiro, A. R. Zanatta, L. A. O. Nunes, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, 'Optical spectroscopy of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2256-2260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Messadeq, Y.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

Moncorgé, R.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, K.

H. Takebe, T. Murata, and K. Morinaga, 'Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb3+ in oxide glasses,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 681-687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Murata, T.

H. Takebe, T. Murata, and K. Morinaga, 'Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb3+ in oxide glasses,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 681-687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagamatsu, K.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nillsson, J.

Nilsson, J.

Nishimura, N.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, L. A. O.

C. T. M. Ribeiro, A. R. Zanatta, L. A. O. Nunes, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, 'Optical spectroscopy of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2256-2260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oprea, I.-I.

I.-I. Oprea, H. Hesse, and K. Betzler, 'Luminescence of erbium-doped bismuth-borate glasses,' Opt. Mater. 28, 1136-1142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Petrin, R. R.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Philipps, J. F.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R. C.

V. A. French, R. R. Petrin, R. C. Powell, and M. Kokta, 'Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Lawson, E. E. Freed, and R. C. Powell, 'Models for energy transfer in solid II,' J. Chem. Phys. 76, 4171-4177 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, M. C.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, J.

M. B. Saisudha and J. Ramakrishna, 'Optical absorption of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Dy3+ in bismuth borate glasses with large radiative transition probabilities,' Opt. Mater. 18, 403-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Saisudha, K. S. R. K. Rao, H. L. Bhat, and J. Ramakrishna, 'The fluorescence of Nd3+ in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses with large stimulated emission cross section,' J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4845-4853 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. O.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ranieri, I. M.

F. H. Jagosich, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Yarelho, L. C. Courrol, and I. M. Ranieri, 'Deactivation effects of the lowest excited states of Er3+ and Ho3+ introduced by Nd3+ ions in LiYF4 crystals,' J. Appl. Phys. 91, 624-632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rao, K. S. R. K.

M. B. Saisudha, K. S. R. K. Rao, H. L. Bhat, and J. Ramakrishna, 'The fluorescence of Nd3+ in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses with large stimulated emission cross section,' J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4845-4853 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, C. T. M.

C. T. M. Ribeiro, A. R. Zanatta, L. A. O. Nunes, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, 'Optical spectroscopy of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped fluoroindate glasses,' J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2256-2260 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H. J.

R. K. Watts and H. J. Richter, 'Diffusion and transfer of optical excitation in YF3:Yb,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 1584-1589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sacchi, G.

Sahu, J. K.

Saisudha, M. B.

M. B. Saisudha and J. Ramakrishna, 'Optical absorption of Nd3+, Sm3+ and Dy3+ in bismuth borate glasses with large radiative transition probabilities,' Opt. Mater. 18, 403-417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Saisudha, K. S. R. K. Rao, H. L. Bhat, and J. Ramakrishna, 'The fluorescence of Nd3+ in lead borate and bismuth borate glasses with large stimulated emission cross section,' J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4845-4853 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Soles, R.

M. C. Pujol, M. A. Bursukova, F. Guell, X. Mateos, R. Soles, J. Gavalda, M. Aguido, J. Massons, and F. Diaz, 'Growth, optical characterization, and laser operation of a stoichiometric crystal KYb(WO4)2,' Phys. Rev. B 65, 165121 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. Garcia Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, 'Nd3+-->Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear crystal,' Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, 'Broad-band 1.5μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,' J. Lumin. 87-89, 670-672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Takebe, H.

H. Takebe, T. Murata, and K. Morinaga, 'Compositional dependence of absorption and fluorescence of Yb3+ in oxide glasses,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 79, 681-687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, N. Sugimoto, S. Ito, and T. Hanada, 'Broad-band 1.5μm emission of Er3+ ions in bismuth-based oxide glasses for potential WDM amplifier,' J. Lumin. 87-89, 670-672 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yokota and O. Tanimoto, 'Effects of diffusion on energy transfer by resonance,' J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 22, 779-784 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Tarelho, L. V. G.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, L. V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, 'Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, T.

Z. Meng, K. Nagamatsu, M. Higashihata, Y. Nakata, T. Okada, Y. Kubota, N. Nishimura, T. Teshima, and S. Buddhudu, 'Energy transfer mechanism in Yb3+:Er3+-ZBLAN: macro- and micro-parameters,' J. Lumin. 106, 187-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thuau, M.

A. Braud, S. Girard, J. L. Doualan, M. Thuau, and R. Moncorgé, 'Energy-transfer processes in Yb:Tm-doped KY3F10, LiYF4, and BaY2F8 single crystals for laser operation at 1.5 and 2.3 μm,' Phys. Rev. B 61, 5280-5292 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Topter, T.

J. F. Philipps, T. Topter, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, D. Ehrt, and R. Sauerbrey, 'Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Er3+ and Yb3+-doped fluoride phosphate glasses,' Appl. Phys. B 72, 399-405 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G. G.

Wang, P.

P. Wang, J. M. Dawes, P. Burns, J. A. Piper, H. J. Zhang, L. Zhu, and X. L. Meng, 'Diode-pumped cw tunable Er3+ and Yb3+:YCOB laser at 1.5-1.6μm,' Opt. Mater. 19, 383-387 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1dB/cm,' Electron. Lett. 35, 1007-1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. K.

R. K. Watts and H. J. Richter, 'Diffusion and transfer of optical excitation in YF3:Yb,Ho,' Phys. Rev. B 6, 1584-1589 (1972).
[CrossRef]

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M. J. Weber, 'Luminescence decay by energy migration and transfer: observation of diffusion-limited relaxation,' Phys. Rev. B 4, 2932-2938 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wen, L.

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, N. L. Dai, S. Q. Xu, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Effect of Bi2O3 on the spectroscopic properties of erbium-doped bismuth silicate,' J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 810-815 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yang, S. X. Dai, L. Wen, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, 'Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of erbium-doped bismuth-based glass of optical amplifier,' J. Appl. Phys. 93, 977-983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. Q.

Yan, Y. C.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, 'Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1dB/cm gain at 1.535 μm,' Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922-2924 (1997).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of Yb 3 + and Er 3 + ions. Solid and dashed arrows indicate the respective radiative and nonradiative processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral overlap between the Yb 3 + emission ( F 5 2 2 F 7 2 2 ) and the Er 3 + absorption ( I 15 2 4 I 11 2 4 ) cross sections in bismuth borate glass. The absorption cross section of Yb 3 + is also presented.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra of bismuth borate glasses doped with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol . % Yb 3 + , while Er 3 + concentration is fixed at 0.1 mol . % ; the excitation wavelength is 974 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence decay curve at 1030 nm of Yb 3 + ions in 0.1 mol . % Yb 3 + 0.1 mol . % Er 3 + -codoped bismuth borate glass; the excitation wavelength is 940 nm . Open circles represent the experimental data, and solid curves are the fitting curves from Eq. (2) for dipole–dipole ( S = 6 ) , dipole–quadrupole ( S = 8 ) , and quardrupole–quadrupole ( S = 10 ) couplings.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluorescence decay curves at 1030 nm of bismuth borate glasses doped with different Yb 3 + concentrations, while Er 3 + concentration is fixed at 0.1 mol . % ; the excitation wavelength is 940 nm .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Yb 3 + Er 3 + energy-transfer efficiency as a function of Yb 3 + concentration in bismuth borate glasses, while Er 3 + concentration is fixed at 0.1 mol . % . Dots are the experimental data, and the solid curve is a guide for the eyes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence decay curve at 1030 nm of Yb 3 + ions in 0.5 mol . % Yb 3 + 0.1 mol . % Er 3 + -codoped bismuth borate glass. Open circles represent the experimental data. The solid line and short-dashed line are the fitting curves from the hopping model and the diffusion model, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Critical Radii R D X and Microparameters C D X of Energy Transfer in Some Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Experimental Values of Parameters γ and K Obtained from the Measured Fluorescence Decay Curves with the Corresponding Values Calculated from Eqs. (3, 8, 9)

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ e m ( λ ) = σ a b s ( λ ) Z l Z u exp ( E z l h c λ 1 k T ) ,
I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( t τ 0 γ t 3 S ) ,
γ = 4 3 π 3 2 N A C D A ,
η = 1 τ τ 0 ,
τ = 1 I 0 0 I ( t ) d t ,
R D X 6 = 6 c τ 0 ( 2 π ) 4 n 2 g D l o w g D u p σ e m D ( λ ) σ a b s X ( λ ) d λ ,
C D X = R D X 6 τ 0 ,
I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp ( t τ 0 γ t K t ) ,
I ( t ) = I ( 0 ) exp [ t τ 0 4 3 π 3 2 N A ( C D A t ) 1 2 × ( 1 + 10.87 x + 15.50 x 2 1 + 8.743 x ) 3 4 ] ,
K h = π ( 2 π 3 ) 5 2 N A N D C D A C D D ,
K d = [ 16 π 2 ( 3 × 2 3 4 ) ] N A N D C D A 1 4 C D D 3 4 .

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