Abstract

By employing a uniformly compact side-pumping system, a high-energy electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG ceramic laser has been demonstrated. With 420W quasi-cw laser-diode-array pumping at 808nm and a 100Hz modulating repetition rate, 50mJ output energy at 1064nm was obtained with 10ns pulse width, 5W average output power, and 5MW peak power. Its corresponding slope efficiency was 29.8%. The laser system operated quite stably and no saturation phenomena have been observed, which means higher output energy could be expected. Laser parameters between ceramic and single-crystal Nd:YAG lasers have been compared, and pulse characteristics of Nd:YAG ceramic with different repetition rate have been investigated in detail. The still-evolving Nd:YAG ceramics are potential super excellent media for high-energy laser applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Monchamp, 'The distribution coefficient of neodymium and lutetium in Czochralski grown Y3Al5O12,' J. Cryst. Growth 11, 310-312 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Ueda, 'Ceramic YAGs set to challenge single crystals,' Opto Laser Europe (2001) http://optics.org/articles/ole/6/12/5.
  3. E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).
  4. A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and A. Ichikawa, 'Production of yttrium-aluminum-garnet fine powder,' Japanese patent 10101333A (September 24, 1996).
  6. T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and H. Yamazaki, 'Production of fine power of yttrium aluminum garnet,' Japanese patent 10101411A (September 24, 1996).
  7. Y. Qi, X. Zhu, and Q. Lou, 'Nd:YAG ceramic laser obtained high slope-efficiency of 62% in high power applications,' Opt. Express 13, 8725-8729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, 'Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,' Opt. Express 12, 3560-3566 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Shirakawa, K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J.-F. Bisson, J. Lu, M. Musha, and K. Ueda, 'Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,' Opt. Express 11, 2911-2916 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. R. Monchamp, 'The distribution coefficient of neodymium and lutetium in Czochralski grown Y3Al5O12,' J. Cryst. Growth 11, 310-312 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).

Akiyama, Y.

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, J.-F.

Carnall, E.

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).

Dong, J.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hatch, S. E.

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).

He, S.

C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, A.

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and A. Ichikawa, 'Production of yttrium-aluminum-garnet fine powder,' Japanese patent 10101333A (September 24, 1996).

Ikesue, A.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, K.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaminshii, A. A.

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, Q.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qi, X. Zhu, and Q. Lou, 'Nd:YAG ceramic laser obtained high slope-efficiency of 62% in high power applications,' Opt. Express 13, 8725-8729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, J.

Ma, H.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monchamp, R. R.

R. R. Monchamp, 'The distribution coefficient of neodymium and lutetium in Czochralski grown Y3Al5O12,' J. Cryst. Growth 11, 310-312 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

Parsons, W. F.

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).

Qi, Y.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qi, X. Zhu, and Q. Lou, 'Nd:YAG ceramic laser obtained high slope-efficiency of 62% in high power applications,' Opt. Express 13, 8725-8729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirakawa, A.

Takaichi, K.

Tang, D. Y.

Ueda, K.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, 'Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,' Opt. Express 12, 3560-3566 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shirakawa, K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J.-F. Bisson, J. Lu, M. Musha, and K. Ueda, 'Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,' Opt. Express 11, 2911-2916 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Ueda, 'Ceramic YAGs set to challenge single crystals,' Opto Laser Europe (2001) http://optics.org/articles/ole/6/12/5.

Wei, Yunrong

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yagi, H.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, 'Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,' Opt. Express 12, 3560-3566 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shirakawa, K. Takaichi, H. Yagi, J.-F. Bisson, J. Lu, M. Musha, and K. Ueda, 'Diode-pumped mode-locked Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser,' Opt. Express 11, 2911-2916 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and A. Ichikawa, 'Production of yttrium-aluminum-garnet fine powder,' Japanese patent 10101333A (September 24, 1996).

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and H. Yamazaki, 'Production of fine power of yttrium aluminum garnet,' Japanese patent 10101411A (September 24, 1996).

Yamazaki, H.

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and H. Yamazaki, 'Production of fine power of yttrium aluminum garnet,' Japanese patent 10101411A (September 24, 1996).

Yanagitani, T.

J. Kong, D. Y. Tang, J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, and T. Yanagitani, 'Passively Q-switched Yb:Y2O3 ceramic laser with a GaAs output coupler,' Opt. Express 12, 3560-3566 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and A. Ichikawa, 'Production of yttrium-aluminum-garnet fine powder,' Japanese patent 10101333A (September 24, 1996).

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and H. Yamazaki, 'Production of fine power of yttrium aluminum garnet,' Japanese patent 10101411A (September 24, 1996).

Yang, C.

C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

J. Lu, K. Ueda, H. Yagi, T. Yanagitani, Y. Akiyama, and A. A. Kaminshii, 'Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Y3Al15O12) nanocrystalline ceramics--a new generation of solid state laser and optical materials,' J. Alloys Compd. 341, 220-225 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

A. Ikesue, T. Kinoshita, K. Kamata, and K. Yoshida, 'Fabrication and optical properties of high-performance polycrystalline Nd:YAG ceramics for solid-state lasers,' J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 78, 1033-1040 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. R. Monchamp, 'The distribution coefficient of neodymium and lutetium in Czochralski grown Y3Al5O12,' J. Cryst. Growth 11, 310-312 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Y. Qi, Q. Lou, Y. Liu, Y. Zhang, H. Ma, J. Dong, and Yunrong Wei, 'Experimental study of Ti:sapphire laser end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser Q-switched by Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber,' J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 550-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Res. (1)

E. Carnall, S. E. Hatch, and W. F. Parsons, 'Optical studies on hot-pressed polycrystalline CaF2 with clean grain boundaries,' Mater. Sci. Res. 3, 165-173 (1966).

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Yang, Y. Huo, S. He, and L. Feng, 'LD pumped high efficiency Nd:YAG ceramic laser,' Proc. SPIE 5627, 158-166 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Ueda, 'Ceramic YAGs set to challenge single crystals,' Opto Laser Europe (2001) http://optics.org/articles/ole/6/12/5.

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and A. Ichikawa, 'Production of yttrium-aluminum-garnet fine powder,' Japanese patent 10101333A (September 24, 1996).

T. Yanagitani, H. Yagi, and H. Yamazaki, 'Production of fine power of yttrium aluminum garnet,' Japanese patent 10101411A (September 24, 1996).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of experimental setup for a side-pumped electro-optical switched Nd:YAG ceramic rod laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of large diode array compact side-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser head.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparing output power of Nd:YAG ceramic and single crystal at the same condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-pulse waveform of electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers under the modulating repetition rate of 1 kHz . (a) ceramic, (b) single crystal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

P average power , pulse energy versus P pump and repetition rate of Nd:YAG ceramic laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Beam profile of Nd:YAG ceramic laser under different modulating rates from CCD.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Laser Parameters of Nd:YAG Lasers at 1064 nm with Effective Pumping Energy of 390 W

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