Abstract

The three-dimensional laser focal region has been spatially shaped so that in the focal plane the transverse intensity distribution is centrally peaked, whereas at multiple defocused planes along the laser propagation direction, the distribution is annular. The longitudinal profile of such a shaped laser focal volume is approximately in the form of a “horseshoe.” The horseshoe-shaped longitudinal profile was realized experimentally from a single laser beam by the incoherent coaxial combination of Laguerre–Gaussian and Gaussian modes generated from segmented optical elements. The ponderomotive forces associated with this three-dimensional focal-intensity distribution can potentially generate a quasi-collimated, forward-directed bunch of electrons from a low-density gas target at high laser intensities.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R.-S.-Harvie, "Charge particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electro-magnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 168-169 (1958).
  3. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, 1959), p. 94.
  4. G. A. Askar'yan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088-1090 (1962).
  5. T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Atzeni and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, The Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter, International Series of Monographs on Physics (Clarendon, 2004).
    [PubMed]
  8. S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, "Laser ionization of noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858-867 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, "Multiphoton ionization in large ponderomotive potentials," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M.Gavrila, ed. (Academic, 1992), Supplement 1, pp. 109-137.
  11. C. I. Moore, "Observation of the transition from Thomson to Compton scattering in optical multiphoton interactions with electrons," Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 1995).
  12. D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. I. Moore, "Confinement of electrons to the center of a laser focus via the ponderomotive potential," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2171-2178 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Singular optics," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2001), Vol. 42, Chap. 4, pp. 219-276.
  23. A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. J. Thompson, "Diffraction by semitransparent and phase annuli," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 145-149 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. L. Chaloupka, Y. Fisher, T. J. Kessler, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Single-beam, ponderomotive-optical trap for free electrons and neutral atoms," Opt. Lett. 22, 1021-1023 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computing Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  28. V. Mahajan, "Uniform versus Gaussian beams: a comparison of the effects of diffraction, obscuration, and aberrations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3, 470-485 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  29. RPC Photonics, Rochester, NY 14623, (http://www.rpcphotonics.com).
  30. N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Nonlinear singular optics," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 301-311 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 1, p. 148.
  33. V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 2, p. 112.
  34. E. Hecht, Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Optics, Schaum's Outline Series (McGraw-Hill, 1975), pp. 69 and 76.

2005

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Nonlinear singular optics," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 301-311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Chaloupka, Y. Fisher, T. J. Kessler, and D. D. Meyerhofer, "Single-beam, ponderomotive-optical trap for free electrons and neutral atoms," Opt. Lett. 22, 1021-1023 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, "Confinement of electrons to the center of a laser focus via the ponderomotive potential," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2171-2178 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1989

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1966

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965

1962

G. A. Askar'yan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088-1090 (1962).

1958

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electro-magnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 168-169 (1958).

1957

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R.-S.-Harvie, "Charge particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A. A.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Askar'yan, G. A.

G. A. Askar'yan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088-1090 (1962).

Atzeni, S.

S. Atzeni and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, The Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter, International Series of Monographs on Physics (Clarendon, 2004).
[PubMed]

Augst, S.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, "Laser ionization of noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858-867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R.-S.-Harvie, R.

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R.-S.-Harvie, "Charge particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Batani, D.

D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bleu, C.

D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boot, H. A. H.

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R.-S.-Harvie, "Charge particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, F.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, "Multiphoton ionization in large ponderomotive potentials," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M.Gavrila, ed. (Academic, 1992), Supplement 1, pp. 109-137.

Burnett, N. H.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, "Multiphoton ionization in large ponderomotive potentials," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M.Gavrila, ed. (Academic, 1992), Supplement 1, pp. 109-137.

Cao, N.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chaloupka, J. L.

Chin, S. L.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, "Laser ionization of noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858-867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coerwinkel, R. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, "Multiphoton ionization in large ponderomotive potentials," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M.Gavrila, ed. (Academic, 1992), Supplement 1, pp. 109-137.

Eberly, J. H.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esarey, E.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, Y.

Gaponov, A. V.

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electro-magnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 168-169 (1958).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computing Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gorshkov, V. N.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hasumi, S.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Optics, Schaum's Outline Series (McGraw-Hill, 1975), pp. 69 and 76.

Heckenberg, N. R.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. K.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Sh. J.

P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, T. J.

Khonina, S. N.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kibble, T. W. B.

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, T.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Q.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kotylar, V. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, 1959), p. 94.

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, 1959), p. 94.

Limpouch, J.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Löwer, Th.

D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, V.

Mahajan, V. N.

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 1, p. 148.

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 2, p. 112.

Malos, J. T.

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

S. Atzeni and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, The Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter, International Series of Monographs on Physics (Clarendon, 2004).
[PubMed]

Miller, M. A.

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electro-magnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 168-169 (1958).

Miyanaga, N.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, K.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, S.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. I.

C. I. Moore, "Confinement of electrons to the center of a laser focus via the ponderomotive potential," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2171-2178 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. I. Moore, "Observation of the transition from Thomson to Compton scattering in optical multiphoton interactions with electrons," Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 1995).

Moshkovich, E.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scheid, S.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sessler, A. M.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shinkaryev, M. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. P.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Soifer, V. A.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sonobe, R.

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soskin, M. S.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Nonlinear singular optics," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 301-311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Singular optics," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2001), Vol. 42, Chap. 4, pp. 219-276.

Strickland, D.

S. Augst, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Strickland, and S. L. Chin, "Laser ionization of noble gases by Coulomb-barrier suppression," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 858-867 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stupakov, G. V.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Ch. X.

P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. J.

Uspleniev, G. V.

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M. V.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Nonlinear singular optics," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 301-311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Singular optics," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2001), Vol. 42, Chap. 4, pp. 219-276.

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. X.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. X.

P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M. J.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. Q.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, N.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zolotorev, M. S.

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. X. Wang, Ch. X. Tang, and Sh. J. Huang, "Multimode combined intense laser-induced electron acceleration and violent bunch compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2752-2754 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

D. Batani, C. Bleu, and Th. Löwer, "Design, simulation and application of phase plates," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 231-243 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. X. Wang, Y. K. Ho, X. Q. Yuan, Q. Kong, N. Cao, L. Shao, A. M. Sessler, E. Esarey, E. Moshkovich, Y. Nishida, N. Yugami, H. Ito, J. X. Wang, and S. Scheid, "Characteristics of laser-driven electron acceleration in vacuum," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 856-866 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

C. I. Moore, "Confinement of electrons to the center of a laser focus via the ponderomotive potential," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 2171-2178 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Khonina, V. V. Kotylar, M. V. Shinkaryev, V. A. Soifer, and G. V. Uspleniev, "The phase rotor filter," J. Mod. Opt. 39, 1147-1154 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, "Superpositions of the orbital angular momentum for applications in quantum experiments," J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 4, S47-S51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

S. Miyazaki, Q. Kong, S. Kawata, and J. Limpouch, "Micro electron bunch generation by intense short pulse laser," J. Phys. D 26, 2878-2882 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, Q. Kong, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, S. Hasumi, R. Sonobe, and T. Kikuchi, "Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(l,0) + TEM(0,l) mode in vacuum," J. Phys. D 38, 1665-1673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. A. H. Boot and R. B. R.-S.-Harvie, "Charge particles in a non-uniform radio-frequency field," Nature 180, 1187 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, "Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phaseplate," Opt. Commun. 112, 321-327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and M. J. Wegener, "Laser beams with phase singularities," Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S951-S962 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Nakajima, S. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and Y. K. Ho, "Electron bunch acceleration and trapping by the ponderomotive force of an intense short-pulse laser," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4605-4608 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. S. Soskin, V. N. Gorshkov, M. V. Vasnetsov, J. T. Malos, and N. R. Heckenberg, "Topological charge and angular momentum of light beams carrying optical vortices," Phys. Rev. A 56, 4064-4075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

Q. Kong, S. Miyazaki, S. Kawata, K. Miyauchi, K. Sakai, Y. K. Ho, K. Nakajima, N. Miyanaga, J. Limpouch, and A. A. Andreev, "Electron bunch trapping and compression by an intense focused pulsed laser," Phys. Rev. E 69, 056502 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Augst, D. Strickland, D. D. Meyerhofer, S. L. Chin, and J. H. Eberly, "Tunneling ionization of noble gases in a high-intensity laser field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2212-2215 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Stupakov and M. S. Zolotorev, "Ponderomotive laser acceleration and focusing in vacuum for generation of attosecond electron bunches," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5274-5277 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. B. Kibble, "Refraction of electron beams by intense electromagnetic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1054-1056 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Nonlinear singular optics," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 301-311 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP

G. A. Askar'yan, "Effects of the gradient of a strong electromagnetic beam on electrons and atoms," Sov. Phys. JETP 15, 1088-1090 (1962).

A. V. Gaponov and M. A. Miller, "Potential wells for charged particles in a high-frequency electro-magnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 168-169 (1958).

Other

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, 1959), p. 94.

P. B. Corkum, N. H. Burnett, and F. Brunel, "Multiphoton ionization in large ponderomotive potentials," in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M.Gavrila, ed. (Academic, 1992), Supplement 1, pp. 109-137.

C. I. Moore, "Observation of the transition from Thomson to Compton scattering in optical multiphoton interactions with electrons," Ph.D. thesis (University of Rochester, 1995).

S. Atzeni and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, The Physics of Inertial Fusion: Beam Plasma Interaction, Hydrodynamics, Hot Dense Matter, International Series of Monographs on Physics (Clarendon, 2004).
[PubMed]

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 1, p. 148.

V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE, 1998), Part 2, p. 112.

E. Hecht, Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Optics, Schaum's Outline Series (McGraw-Hill, 1975), pp. 69 and 76.

M. S. Soskin and M. V. Vasnetsov, "Singular optics," in Progress in Optics, E.Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, 2001), Vol. 42, Chap. 4, pp. 219-276.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Series in Electrical and Computing Engineering (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

RPC Photonics, Rochester, NY 14623, (http://www.rpcphotonics.com).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering direction of electrons born in the laser field.[11]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic transverse intensity profile of a horseshoe-shaped focus (profile is cylindrically symmetric about the z axis).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic longitudinal intensity map for a horseshoe-shaped focal profile (the profile is cylindrically symmetric about the z axis).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic longitudinal profile for Gaussian beam and doughnut beam intensity combination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic setup of incoherent coaxial beam combination using segmented optical elements. Region P2 of the segmented wave plate[25] is the half-wave plate that rotates the polarization of the inner central region (P2) of the laser beam with respect to the outer region (P1). Region S2 of the segmented phase plate[25, 26] has a spiral phase, and region S1 has a quadratic defocus phase.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase map (in waves) of the segmented phase plate. The radius of the inner circular region (S2) with the spiral phase has to be approximately in the range of 0.9 to 1.1 times the 1 e 2 intensity radius ( ω 0 ) of the input beam. The outer annular region (S1) has the quadratic defocus phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulation of longitudinal focal profiles generated by the segmented optical design of Fig. 5 for various values of ( c 0 ω 0 ) : (a) 0.9, (b) 0.97, (c) 1.0, (d) 1.1, (e) 0.85, (f) 1.25. Theoretical Gaussian spot size ( ω f ) 4.7 μ m , and Rayleigh range ( Z R ) 112 μ m .

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Focal-spot characterization testbed to test the segmented optical design (Fig. 5) for generating the horseshoe focus.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface-relief phase map of RPC Inc.’s spiral phase plate measured by the Fizeau frequency-shifting interferometry. The measured peak-to-valley phase is 1.08 λ .

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transverse focal profiles of the shaped focal volume at various axial locations: (a) z = 0 (best focus for the central peak), (b) z = 1.6 Z R , (c) z = 3.2 Z R , (d) z = 4.8 Z R . Experimental Gaussian spot size ( ω f ) 5 μ m , and Rayleigh range ( Z R ) 124 μ m .

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Azimuthal average of the transverse focal profiles obtained by scanning the detector through the focal volume.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d d t ( m v 1 v 2 c 2 ) = ( E + v × B ) ,
F p = U p = m c 2 [ ( a 2 2 + 1 ) 1 2 1 ] ,
tan θ = 2 γ 1 ,
Φ d ( r ) π ( Δ z ) λ ( f ) 2 r 2 ,
Φ d ( r = R ) ( Δ z ) β 2 8 λ ( f # ) 2 .
f eq = f 2 Δ z .
f b 1 f 0 2 d .
d Δ z ( f 0 2 f 2 ) .

Metrics