Abstract

Geometrical birefringence in circular- and elliptical-hole square-lattice holey optical fibers having a core consisting of a multiple defect is investigated. The effect of unidirectional extension of the core area on the birefringence of these holey fibers (HFs) is discussed. We demonstrate that, as expected, a high birefringence can be induced in circular-hole HFs by unidirectional extension of the core area. In contrast, the maximum birefringence of elliptical-hole HFs, the holes of which have their major axes parallel to the long axis of the core, is achieved in a core structure that has a single defect. We also found that for elliptical holes having their major axes orthogonal to the long axis of the core, an exchange of the fast and slow modes occurs between the two orthogonally polarized fundamental modes by birefringence compensation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (3)

2004 (4)

S. Guo, F. Wu, S. Albin, H. Tai, and R. S. Rogowski, "Loss and dispersion analysis of microstructured fibers by finite-difference method," Opt. Express 12, 3341-3352 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. A. Issa, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, M. Fellew, F. Cox, G. Henry, and M. C. J. Large, "Fabrication and study of microstructured optical fibers with elliptical holes," Opt. Lett. 29, 1336-1338 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (5)

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1986 (2)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071-2102 (1968).

1966 (1)

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).
[Crossref]

Albin, S.

Arriaga, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atkin, D. M.

Belardi, W.

Berghmans, F.

Birks, T.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).
[Crossref]

Bjarklev, A. S.

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).
[Crossref]

Broeng, J.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. G.

Chaudhuri, P. R.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cox, F.

Cregan, R. F.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

De Sandro, J.-P.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

Díez, A.

Eguchi, M.

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fellew, M.

Fujita, M.

Furusawa, K.

Gander, M.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

George, A. K.

Guenneau, S.

Guo, S.

Hansen, T. P.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hayata, K.

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

Henry, G.

Issa, N. A.

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, J.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kawanishi, S.

Klimek, J.

Knight, J.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kubota, H.

Lai, Y.

Large, M. C. J.

Lee, J. H.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. F.

Liu, Y. C.

Lu, C.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

Makara, M.

Mangan, B. J.

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071-2102 (1968).

Marin, E.

Martynkien, T.

McBirde, R.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mogilevtsev, D.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Monro, T. M.

Movchan, A. B.

Naslilowski, T.

Noda, J.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[Crossref]

Olszewski, J.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

Paulose, V.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Ranka, J. K.

Richardson, D. J.

Rogowski, R. S.

Russell, P.

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[Crossref]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

Statkiewicz, G.

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Suzuki, K.

Suzuki, M.

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

Szpulak, M.

Tai, H.

Tanaka, M.

Thienpont, H.

Urbanczyk, W.

van Eijkelenborg, M. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. Arriaga, B. J. Mangan, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, A.

Windeler, R. S.

Wójcik, J.

Wu, F.

Yee, K. S.

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).
[Crossref]

Yu, R. J.

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, "Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071-2102 (1968).

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. St. J. Russell, and J.-P. De Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 34, 1347-1348 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Gander, R. McBirde, J. Jones, D. Mogilevtsev, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. Russell, "Experimental measurement of group velocity dispersion in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-43 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. R. Chaudhuri, V. Paulose, C. Zhao, and C. Lu, "Near-elliptic core polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber: modeling birefringence characteristics and realization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1301-1303 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-14, 302-307 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

K. Hayata, M. Eguchi, M. Koshiba, and M. Suzuki, "Vectorial wave analysis of side-tunnel type polarization-maintaining optical fibers by variational finite elements," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1090-1096 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1071-1089 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. J. Steel and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. Y. Chen and R. J. Yu, "Polarization properties of elliptical-hole rectangular lattice photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 512-515 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Other (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibres (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elliptical-hole square-lattice HF with a core consisting of a triple defect.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Birefringence of circular-hole square-lattice HFs ( η = 1 ) with cores consisting of (a) double, (b) triple, (c) fourfold, and (d) fivefold defects. The second-order cutoffs are marked on the horizontal-axes by arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Birefringence of elliptical-hole square-lattice HFs ( η = 0.5 ) with cores consisting of (a) single, (b) double, (c) triple, (d) fourfold, and (e) fivefold defects. In the frequency range until triangles, the y-polarized modes are leaky modes with respect to the x-polarized FSM. The second-order cutoffs are marked on the horizontal axes by arrows.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity distributions of dominant component in the (a) x- and (b) y-polarized modes for the elliptical-hole HF ( ξ = 0.7 ) with a core consisting of a single defect at Λ λ = 0.4 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Birefringence of elliptical-hole square-lattice HFs ( η = 2 ) with cores consisting of triple, fourfold, and fivefold defects. (a) ξ = 0.7 . (b) ξ = 0.5 and 0.3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Intensity distributions of dominant component in the (a) x- and (b) y-polarized modes for the elliptical-hole HF ( ξ = 0.7 ) with a core consisting of a fivefold defect at Λ λ = 1.3046 .

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