Abstract

While information encoding through optically induced orientation of azo dyes in organic matrices is being extensively pursued, we propose the alternative of starting out with poled films and to locally reduce their second-harmonic generation capacity by a focused near-infrared femtosecond laser beam of moderate intensity. Arrays of dots irradiated under varying conditions are subsequently imaged in situ as dark spots on a bright background. The samples are also examined through conventional optical microscopy and through atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that, of these techniques, second-harmonic imaging performs best in the task of information retrieval.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.
  6. M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. L. Yu and T. Ikeda, "Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247-265 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-2003 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Bidault, J. Gouya, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, "Encoding multipolar polarization patterns by optical poling in polymers: towards nonlinear optical memories," Opt. Express 13, 505-510 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-741 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Hilfer, "H-function representations for stretched exponential relaxation and non-Debye susceptibilities in glassy systems," Phys. Rev. E 65, 0615101-0615105 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Williams and D. C. Watts, "Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function," Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80-85 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. T. Boyd, "Optical second-harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers," Thin Solid Films 152, 295-304 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (4)

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bidault, J. Gouya, S. Brasselet, and J. Zyss, "Encoding multipolar polarization patterns by optical poling in polymers: towards nonlinear optical memories," Opt. Express 13, 505-510 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Yu and T. Ikeda, "Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hilfer, "H-function representations for stretched exponential relaxation and non-Debye susceptibilities in glassy systems," Phys. Rev. E 65, 0615101-0615105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

G. T. Boyd, "Optical second-harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers," Thin Solid Films 152, 295-304 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, "Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function," Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80-85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barsella, A.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bidault, S.

Bohm, N.

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. T.

G. T. Boyd, "Optical second-harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers," Thin Solid Films 152, 295-304 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

Braun, K. L.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulou, H.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, J. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charra, F.

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-2003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

Diemeer, M. B. J.

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

Dorkenoo, K. D.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Etilé, A. C.

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

Fiorini, C.

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-2003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

Fort, A.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gouya, J.

Higgins, B. G.

Hilfer, R.

R. Hilfer, "H-function representations for stretched exponential relaxation and non-Debye susceptibilities in glassy systems," Phys. Rev. E 65, 0615101-0615105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Y. L. Yu and T. Ikeda, "Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishitobi, H.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, S.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Kowel, S. T.

Kuebler, S. M.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblond, H.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemercier, G.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Materny, A.

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Mulatier, J.-C.

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muller, M. M.

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-2003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

Ober, C. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, P.

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, "Quasi-permanent all-optical encoding of noncentrosymmetry in azo-dye polymers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1984-2003 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, A.

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schottner, G.

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

She, W.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steins, H.

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, D. C.

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, "Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function," Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80-85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, "Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function," Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80-85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. L.

Y. L. Yu and T. Ikeda, "Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, F.

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Luo, W. She, S. Wu, F. Zeng, and S. Yao, "Improvement of all-optical switching effect based on azobenzene-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. B 80, 77-80 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansohn, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Klein, A. Barsella, H. Leblond, H. Bulou, A. Fort, C. Andraud, G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "One-step waveguide and optical circuit writing in photopolymerizable materials processed by two-photon absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 2111181-2111183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Maeda, H. Ishitobi, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, "Polarization storage by nonlinear orientational hole burning in azo dye-containing polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 351-353 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Leinse, M. B. J. Diemeer, A. Rousseau, and A. Driessen, "A novel high-speed polymeric EO modulator based on a combination of a microring resonator and an MZI," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2074-2076 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Photochem. Photobiol. C (1)

Y. L. Yu and T. Ikeda, "Alignment modulation of azobenzene-containing liquid crystal systems by photochemical reactions," J. Photochem. Photobiol. C 5, 247-265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

N. Bohm, A. Materny, H. Steins, M. M. Muller, and G. Schottner, "Optically induced dichroism and birefringence of disperse red 1 in hybrid polymers," Macromolecules 31, 4265-4271 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

R. Hilfer, "H-function representations for stretched exponential relaxation and non-Debye susceptibilities in glassy systems," Phys. Rev. E 65, 0615101-0615105 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. T. Boyd, "Optical second-harmonic generation as an orientational probe in poled polymers," Thin Solid Films 152, 295-304 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, "Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from a simple empirical decay function," Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80-85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Fiorini, F. Charra, A. C. Etilé, P. Raimond, and J. M. Nunzi, Advanced Functional Molecules and Polymers, H.S.Nalwa, ed. (Gordon & Breach, 2001), pp. 167-216.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real time SHG efficiency decay and relaxation rate of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility. (a) Normalized SHG intensity as a function of time for six values of the illumination power from 1.0 to 5.6 mW . (b) Relaxation rate of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility versus illumination power. Experimental data (black squares, also shown in log/log representation in the inset) are extracted from depoling curves with a stretched exponential relaxation function. Curves in (b) correspond to a quadratic law.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of SHG signal versus illumination power. (a) Real time recording of the SHG signal during the burn-in of 109 dots: 300 ms exposure time, power settings between 0.3 and 10 mW . (b) and (c) Zoom-in on the data points for powers 1.8 and 8.7 mW , respectively. (d) SHG intensities at the opening (∎) and before the closing (●) of the shutter [see arrows in (b) and (c)] versus illumination power. (e) SHG contrast for illumination powers over 10 mW displays a saturation effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical and AFM images of printed dots. (a) Optical microscopy of an array of 20 lines of dots written with illumination power increasing from 1.3 (top left) to 48.1 mW (bottom right). (b) SHG imaging scan of the same area of the sample with a power of 2 mW . (c)–(e) AFM scans of three areas depicted by white squares in hole depths of (c) 4, (d) 7, and (e) 20 nm . Small black specks (typically 200 nm in diameter) appear during film preparation and poling. Scale bars in all pictures are 7.5 μ m .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SHG pictures of several patterns. (a) 200 × 200 μ m area of a blank poled sample. (b)–(e) Four successive scans after burn-in of 10 μ m spaced dots with λ = 800 nm at an illumination power of 50 mW , exposure time of 200 ms . All scans performed at 4.2 mW with steps of (b) 4, (c) 1, (d) 0.5, and (e) 0.4 μ m . (f) Inverted representation of SHG loss imaging in fake colors (writing power of 50 mW and reading power of 3.6 mW ). (g) Grating with a 4 μ m step (etching at 10.3 mW and scanning at 3.1 mW ).

Equations (1)

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I 2 ω ( t ) = I 2 ω ( 0 ) exp [ ( t τ ) β ] , 0 < β 1 .

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