Abstract

Quantum mechanics provides a mechanism for absolutely secure communication between remote parties. For distances greater than 100 km, direct quantum communication via optical fiber is not viable, owing to fiber losses, and intermediate storage of the quantum information along the transmission channel is necessary. This leads to the concept of the quantum repeater, proposed by Briegel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 169 (1998) ]. Duan et al. [Nature 414, 413 (2001) ] have proposed to use atomic ensembles as the basic memory elements for the quantum repeater. We provide an overview of our program on the use of atomic ensembles as an interface for quantum information transfer and the prospects for long-distance quantum networks.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

S. D. Jenkins, D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chanelière, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, "Theory of collapses and revivals of dark-state polaritons," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021803(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chanelière, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Observation of collapses and revivals of dark-state polaritons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 033601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chanelière, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Entanglement of remote atomic qubits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030405 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, T. A. B. Kennedy, M. S. Chapman, and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum telecommunication based on atomic cascade transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 093604 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chanelière, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Deterministic single photons via conditional quantum evolution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Thompson, J. Simon, H. Loh, and V. Vuletic, "A high-brightness source of narrowband, identical-photon pairs," Science 313, 74-77 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Volz, M. Weber, D. Schlenk, W. Rosenfeld, J. Vrana, K. Saucke, C. Kurtsiefer, and H. Weinfurter, "Observation of entanglement of a single photon with a trapped atom," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 030404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Yavuz, P. B. Kulatunga, E. Urban, T. A. Johnson, N. Proite, T. Henage, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman, "Fast ground state manipulation of neutral atoms in microscopic optical traps," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (9)

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Resch, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, H. Böhm, A. Fedrizzi, C. Kurtsiefer, A. Poppe, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, M. Taraba, R. Ursin, P. Walther, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Distributing entanglement and single photons through an intracity, free-space quantum channel," Opt. Express 13, 202-209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837-841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Balic, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Matsukevich, T. Chanelière, M. Bhattacharya, S.-Y. Lan, S. D. Jenkins, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Entanglement of a photon and a collective atomic excitation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, "Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories," Nature 438, 833-836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, and H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Darqui, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon,S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, andP. Grangier, "Controlled single-photon emission from a single trapped two-level atom," Science 309, 454-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (7)

M. Keller, B. Lange, K. Hayasaka, W. Lange, and H. Walther, "Continuous generation of single photons with controlled waveform in an ion-trap cavity system," Nature 431, 1075-1078 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jeffrey, N. A. Peters, and P. G. Kwiat, "Towards a periodic deterministic source of arbitrary single-photon states," New J. Phys. 6, 100-100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. McKeever, A. Boca, A. D. Boozer, R. Miller, J. R. Buck, A. Kuzmich, and H. J. Kimble, "Deterministic generation of single photons from one atom trapped in a cavity," Science 306, 1992-1994 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuzmich and T. A. B. Kennedy, "Nonsymmetric entanglement of atomic ensembles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 030407 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, L.-M. Duan, and C. Monroe, "Observation of entanglement between a single trapped atom and a single photon," Nature 428, 153-157 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Vandevender and P. G. Kwiat, "High efficiency single photon detection via frequency up-conversion," J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1433-1445 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Matsukevich and A. Kuzmich, "Quantum state transfer between matter and light," Science 306, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Kuzmich, W. P. Bowen, A. D. Boozer, A. Boca, C. W. Chou, L.-M. Duan, and H. J. Kimble, "Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles," Nature 423, 731-734 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Atomic memory for correlated photon states," Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. B. Pittman, B. C. Jacobs, and J. D. Franson, "Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, M. Hennrich, and G. Rempe, "Deterministic single-photon source for distributed quantum networking," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 067901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, C. Santori, J. Vuckovic, B. Y. Zhang, G. S. Solomon, J. Plant, and Y. Yamamoto, "Efficient source of single photons: a single quantum dot in a micropost microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 233602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lloyd, M. S. Shahriar, J. H. Shapiro, and P. R. Hemmer, "Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167903 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, I. J. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, " A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Law, I. A. Walmsley, and J. H. Eberly, "Continuous frequency entanglement: effective finite Hilbert space and entropy control," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5304-5307 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lounis and W. E. Moerner, "Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature," Nature 407, 491-493 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brouri, A. Beveratos, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, "Photon antibunching in the fluorescence of individual color centers in diamond," Opt. Lett. 25, 1294-1296 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

W. Dür, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters based on entanglement purification," Phys. Rev. A 59, 169-181 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dür, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. Hagley, X. Matre, G. Nogues, C. Wunderlich, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs of atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1-5 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bouwmeester, J.-W. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Experimental quantum teleportation," Nature 390, 575-579 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell's theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, "Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences," Electron. Lett. 1, 173-179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, "Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories," Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andre, A.

M. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses," Nature 438, 837-841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, "Atomic memory for correlated photon states," Science 301, 196-200 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

P. Grangier, G. Roger, and A. Aspect, "Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beam splitter: a new light on single-photon interferences," Electron. Lett. 1, 173-179 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, "Long-distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1541-1551 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, "A photonic quantum information interface," Nature 437, 116-120 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balic, V.

V. Balic, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, X.-H.

C.-Z. Peng, T. Yang, X.-H. Bao, J. Zhang, X.-M. Jin, F.-Y. Feng, B. Yang, J. Yang, J. Yin, Q. Zhang, N. Li, B.-L. Tian, and J.-W. Pan, "Experimental free-space distribution of entangled photon pairs over 13km: towards satellite-based global quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 150501 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, T. Scheidl, M. Lindenthal, B. Blauensteiner, T. Jennewein, J. Perdigues, P. Trojek, B. Oemer, M. Fuerst, M. Meyenburg, J. Rarity, Z. Sodnik, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, "Free-space distribution of entanglement and single photons over 144km," arxiv.org e-print archive, quant-ph/0607182, July 27, 2006, http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0607182.

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, " A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergamini, S.

B. Darqui, M. P. A. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon,S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, andP. Grangier, "Controlled single-photon emission from a single trapped two-level atom," Science 309, 454-456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beugnon, J.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DLCZ protocol for the photon pair generation illustrating the write and read processes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the phase-matched off-axis geometry used to generate correlated photon pairs in the DLCZ scheme.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

One of the atomic Rb level schemes for cascade emission involving two-photon excitation by pumps 1 and 2. The signal wavelength of 1.53 μ m lies in the telecommunication wavelength range.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental setup used to encode a matter qubit in two atomic ensembles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Illustration of atom–photon entanglement generation, where σ S , I ± represents the circular polarization states of the signal and idler fields, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illustration of the setup for the entanglement of two remote atomic qubits.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of the experimental setup for the generation of deterministic single photons.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

g D ( 2 ) as a function of N and p 1 in the limit of infinite atomic memory.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

η D as a function of N and p 1 in the limit of infinite atomic memory.

Equations (10)

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S g g = i = 1 N g i g e i Δ k r i ,
ϕ = 0 a 0 p + p c S g g a 0 a 0 p + O ( p c ) ,
ϱ ( q ) 1 N μ I 1 ( r μ ) I 2 ( r μ ) I ¯ e i q r μ = ( d 3 r I 1 ( r ) I 2 ( r ) I ¯ n ( r ) N e i q r ) + O ( 1 N ) ,
I ¯ d 3 r I 1 ( r ) I 2 ( r ) n ( r ) N .
ρ ̂ ( t ) ( 1 + ϵ Ψ ̂ 2 ) ρ ̂ vac ( 1 + ϵ Ψ ̂ 2 ) ,
Ψ ̂ 2 = 1 5 a ̂ H b ̂ H + 2 5 a ̂ V b ̂ V ,
cos 2 η = m X m 2 ( 1 ) m ( X m 2 ( 1 ) + X m 2 ( + 1 ) ) ,
P k = ( 1 p vac ) p k 1 ,
P 23 = ( 1 p vac ) p 23 1 ,
g D ( 2 ) P 23 P 2 P 3 = α 1 p vac ,

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