Abstract

We report on a self-pulsing Tm3+:ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser in the region of 800nm. Lasing operation at one or two wavelengths corresponding to two different transitions is investigated. A new self-pulsing dynamics when lasing at two wavelengths is reported for the first time to our knowledge. We could reproduce numerically what we observed experimentally with a simple model based on the rate equations. This dynamical regime could be explained by the strong absorption of the ground state at the lasing wavelengths and the gain competition between the two transitions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Lucas and J. L. Adam, "Rare-earth doped fluoride glass fibres," J. Alloys Compd. 180, 27-35 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88, and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 25, 1660-1662 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166-168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Laperle, R. Vallee, and A. Chandonnet, "Thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 3611, 228-239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Paschotta, P. R. Barber, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Characterization and modeling of thulium:ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1213-1218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Operation of diode laser pumped Tm3+ ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser at 482 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118-123 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).
  10. M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Mejia, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "High-efficiency lasing at 810 nm in single-mode Tm3+ doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 778 nm," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2699-2702 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Saissy, E. Maurice, and G. Monnom, "Q-switched operation of a 810 nm thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 7-14 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, "Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germano-aluminosilicate fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1118-1122 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. Leboudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, "Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1987-1989 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2122 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, "Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ~544-549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 980-992 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, "Self-mode-locking effects in heavily doped single-clad Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1053-1063 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "Dynamics and self-pulsing effects in Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," Opt. Commun. 208, 381-389 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, "Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178-2188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811-2822 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Dynamics of a Nd-doped fiber laser. cw and self-pulsing regimes, stabilization," J. Phys. III 5, 251-268 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).
  32. F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, G. Martel, and C. Ozkul, "Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1294-1296 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  36. A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  37. F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. P. Laperle, "Étude de lasers à fibre émettant à 480 nm et du phénomène de coloration dans la fibre de ZBLAN dopée au thulium," Ph.D. dissertation (COPL, Université Laval, 2003).
  39. A. E. Siegman, "Laser Q-switching," in Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), Chap. 26.
  40. A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Photodegradation of near-infrared-pumped Tm3+-doped ZBLAN fiber upconversion lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 348-350 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, "Self-mode-locking effects in heavily doped single-clad Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1053-1063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, "Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germano-aluminosilicate fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1118-1122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "Dynamics and self-pulsing effects in Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," Opt. Commun. 208, 381-389 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, G. Martel, and C. Ozkul, "Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1294-1296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, "Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ~544-549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 980-992 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Laperle, R. Vallee, and A. Chandonnet, "Thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 3611, 228-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, "Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178-2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

E. Mejia, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "High-efficiency lasing at 810 nm in single-mode Tm3+ doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 778 nm," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2699-2702 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Paschotta, P. R. Barber, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Characterization and modeling of thulium:ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1213-1218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Photodegradation of near-infrared-pumped Tm3+-doped ZBLAN fiber upconversion lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 348-350 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. Leboudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, "Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1987-1989 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saissy, E. Maurice, and G. Monnom, "Q-switched operation of a 810 nm thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 7-14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Operation of diode laser pumped Tm3+ ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser at 482 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118-123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Dynamics of a Nd-doped fiber laser. cw and self-pulsing regimes, stabilization," J. Phys. III 5, 251-268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811-2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucas and J. L. Adam, "Rare-earth doped fluoride glass fibres," J. Alloys Compd. 180, 27-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88, and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 25, 1660-1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. Lucas and J. L. Adam, "Rare-earth doped fluoride glass fibres," J. Alloys Compd. 180, 27-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88, and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 25, 1660-1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J. L.

Barber, P. R.

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Besnard, P.

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bielawski, S.

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Dynamics of a Nd-doped fiber laser. cw and self-pulsing regimes, stabilization," J. Phys. III 5, 251-268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811-2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanc, W.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Booth, I. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Operation of diode laser pumped Tm3+ ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser at 482 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118-123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Photodegradation of near-infrared-pumped Tm3+-doped ZBLAN fiber upconversion lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 348-350 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunet, F.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. N.

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chandonnet, A.

P. Laperle, R. Vallee, and A. Chandonnet, "Thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 3611, 228-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, T.

M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, G. Martel, and C. Ozkul, "Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1294-1296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colin, S.

Contesse, E.

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, M. L.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Derozier, D.

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Dynamics of a Nd-doped fiber laser. cw and self-pulsing regimes, stabilization," J. Phys. III 5, 251-268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bielawski and D. Derozier, "Antiphase dynamics and polarization effects in the Nd-doped fiber laser," Phys. Rev. A 46, 2811-2822 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, J. W.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, "Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ~544-549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 980-992 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

El-Agmy, R. M.

R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).

El-Sherif, A. F.

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "Dynamics and self-pulsing effects in Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," Opt. Commun. 208, 381-389 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Faure, B.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francois, P. L.

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. S. Funk and J. G. Eden, "Laser diode-pumped holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser in the green (λ~544-549 nm): power conversion efficiency, pump acceptance bandwidth, and excited-state kinetics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 980-992 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gavrilovic, P.

E. Mejia, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "High-efficiency lasing at 810 nm in single-mode Tm3+ doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 778 nm," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2699-2702 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ginovart, F.

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Graf, T.

R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, P. R. Barber, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Characterization and modeling of thulium:ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1213-1218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hideur, A.

M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, G. Martel, and C. Ozkul, "Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1294-1296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Il'ichev, N. N.

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, "Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germano-aluminosilicate fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1118-1122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, "Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178-2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jaouen, C.

Karasek, M.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, "Self-mode-locking effects in heavily doped single-clad Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1053-1063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, "Dynamics and self-pulsing effects in Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," Opt. Commun. 208, 381-389 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, "Dynamics of the output of heavily Tm-doped double-clad silica fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2178-2188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kir'yanov, A. V.

A. V. Kir'yanov, N. N. Il'ichev, and Y. O. Barmenkov, "Excited-state absorption as a source of nonlinear thermo-induced lensing and self-Q-switching in an all-fiber erbium laser," Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 194-198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laperle, P.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Laperle, R. Vallee, and A. Chandonnet, "Thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 3611, 228-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Laperle, "Étude de lasers à fibre émettant à 480 nm et du phénomène de coloration dans la fibre de ZBLAN dopée au thulium," Ph.D. dissertation (COPL, Université Laval, 2003).

LaRochelle, S.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Boudec, P.

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leboudec, P.

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. Leboudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, "Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1987-1989 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leflohic, M.

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, "Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germano-aluminosilicate fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1118-1122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

J. Lucas and J. L. Adam, "Rare-earth doped fluoride glass fibres," J. Alloys Compd. 180, 27-35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).

Mackechnie, C. J.

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Operation of diode laser pumped Tm3+ ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser at 482 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118-123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martel, G.

Maurice, E.

A. Saissy, E. Maurice, and G. Monnom, "Q-switched operation of a 810 nm thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 7-14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, E.

E. Mejia, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "High-efficiency lasing at 810 nm in single-mode Tm3+ doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 778 nm," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2699-2702 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88, and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 25, 1660-1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monnom, G.

A. Saissy, E. Maurice, and G. Monnom, "Q-switched operation of a 810 nm thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 7-14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nees, J.

L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozkul, C.

M. Salhi, A. Hideur, T. Chartier, G. Martel, and C. Ozkul, "Evidence of Brillouin scattering in an ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 27, 1294-1296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Peterka, P.

P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser," Electron. Lett. 26, 166-168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, "Tunable cw lasing around 0.82, 1.48, 1.88, and 2.35 μm in thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 25, 1660-1662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pujol, L.

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qamar, F. Z.

F. Z. Qamar and T. A. King, "Self-mode-locking effects in heavily doped single-clad Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1053-1063 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saissy, A.

A. Saissy, E. Maurice, and G. Monnom, "Q-switched operation of a 810 nm thulium-doped fluorozirconate fibre laser," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 7-14 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M.

Sanchez, F.

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, and F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. Leboudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, "Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1987-1989 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirakawa, A.

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, "Laser Q-switching," in Lasers (University Science Books, 1986), Chap. 26.

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, G.

F. Sanchez and G. Stephan, "General analysis of instabilities in erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. E 53, 2110-2122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Colin, E. Contesse, P. Leboudec, G. Stephan, and F. Sanchez, "Evidence of a saturable-absorption effect in heavily erbium-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 21, 1987-1989 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Leboudec, C. Jaouen, P. L. Francois, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, P. Besnard, and G. Stephan, "Antiphase dynamics and chaos in self-pulsing erbium-doped fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 18, 1890-1892 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Leboudec, M. Leflohic, P. L. Francois, F. Sanchez, and G. Stephan, "Self-pulsing in Er3+-doped fibre laser," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 359-367 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, and G. Stephan, "Effects of ion pairs on the dynamics of erbium-doped fiber lasers," Phys. Rev. A 48, 2220-2229 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephan, G. M.

P. Besnard, F. Ginovart, P. Le Boudec, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Experimental and theoretical study of bifurcation diagrams of a dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 205, 187-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, G. M. Stephan, P. Leboudec, and P. L. Francois, "Quasi-periodic route to chaos in erbium-doped fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 481-488 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Sanchez, M. Leflohic, P. Besnard, P. L. Francois, and G. M. Stephan, "Erbium laser model for two-wavelength operation," J. Phys. III 5, 281-295 (1995).

P. Leboudec, P. L. Francois, E. Delevaque, J. F. Bayon, F. Sanchez, and G. M. Stephan, "Influence of ion pairs on the dynamical behaviour of Er3+-doped fibre lasers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 25, 501-507 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, S. B.

D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, P. R. Barber, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Characterization and modeling of thulium:ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1213-1218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, J. N. Carter, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, and D. Szebesta, "High efficiency, low threshold amplification and lasing at 0.8 μm in monomode Tm3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre," Electron. Lett. 28, 58-59 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K. I.

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "Multiple-wavelength up-conversion laser in Tm3+-doped ZBLAN glass fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1818-1820 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, S. Huang, Y. Feng, A. Shirakawa, and K. I. Ueda, "784 nm amplified spontaneous emission from Tm3+-doped fluoride glass fiber pumped by an 1120 nm fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 269-271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallee, R.

P. Laperle, R. Vallee, and A. Chandonnet, "Thulium-doped ZBLAN fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 3611, 228-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Brunet, P. Laperle, R. Vallee, S. LaRochelle, and L. Pujol, "Modeling of Tm-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber lasers operating at 455 nm," Proc. SPIE 3849, 125-135 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

A. Chandonnet, P. Laperle, S. LaRochelle, and R. Vallée, "Photodegradation of fluoride glass blue fiber laser," Proc. SPIE 2998, 70-81 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ventrudo, B. F.

I. J. Booth, J. L. Archambault, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Photodegradation of near-infrared-pumped Tm3+-doped ZBLAN fiber upconversion lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 348-350 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Booth, C. J. Mackechnie, and B. F. Ventrudo, "Operation of diode laser pumped Tm3+ ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser at 482 nm," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 118-123 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D. T.

L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

R. M. El-Agmy, W. Lüthy, T. Graf, and H. P. Weber, "Excitation of Tm3+ at a wavelength of 1064 nm," Optim. 76, 23-26 (2003).

Weber, W. H.

L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. S.

D. S. Funk, S. B. Stevens, S. S. Wu, and J. G. Eden, "Tuning, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the green (λ~549 nm), holmium-doped fluorozirconate glass fiber laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 638-645 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L. M.

L. M. Yang, D. T. Walton, J. Nees, and W. H. Weber, "Compact, high power, modelocked upconversion laser using a thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 32, 658-659 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zenteno, L. A.

E. Mejia, L. A. Zenteno, and P. Gavrilovic, "High-efficiency lasing at 810 nm in single-mode Tm3+ doped fluorozirconate fiber pumped at 778 nm," Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 37, 2699-2702 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. L. Dennis, J. W. Dixon, and I. Aggarwal, "High power upconversion lasing at 810 nm, in Tm:ZBLAN fibre," Electron. Lett. 30, 136-137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Carter, R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, and A. C. Tropper, "Lasing and amplification in the 0.8 μm region in thulium doped fluorozirconate fibres," Electron. Lett. 26, 1759-1761 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy level diagram of Tm 3 + ions. GSA, ground state absorption; ESA, excited state absorption; PSE, pump stimulated emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. P1, P2, and λ 2 are polarizers and a half-wave plate, respectively, and form a variable attenuator. PD, silicon photodiodes, GP, a glass plates, L, aspheric lenses; HR, high-reflectivity mirror at 710 871 nm with a reflectivity of 17% at the pump wavelength; M, optional output coupler; RDG, reflective diffraction grating; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer. The pump is a cw Yb 3 + -doped fiber laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ASE spectra for a cavity with only Fresnel reflections at both fiber ends at different pump powers (in milliwatts) and for two fiber lengths: (a) 70 cm , (b) 179 cm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal evolution of the total power when the two wavelengths are not spatially separated by a diffraction grating. Weak pulses are attributed to emission at 785 nm and stronger ones to emission at 805 nm .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectrum and laser curve with an output coupler of (a) 55% reflectivity at 810 nm and (b) 25% at 785 nm and with an output coupler of (c), (d) 45% reflectivity at both wavelengths.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal evolution of the two wavelengths after the pump has been turned on. Laser power at 805 nm is on the upper graph, and laser power at 785 nm is on the lower graph.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental pulse shape at 805 nm (dots) fitted with a hyperbolic secant curve (dashed) along with the one obtained from the numerical modeling. Both pulses take squared hyperbolic secant shape.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simulation of the temporal evolution of (a) two laser powers, (b) closer view of the pulses, and (c) normalized population densities for the four energy levels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Closeup of the temporal evolution of the laser powers and the corresponding population inversion at the beginning of the pulsed phenomena.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Repetition rate of the laser as a function of the launched pump power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Stimulated Emission and Absorption Cross Sections Used in the Simulations

Tables Icon

Table 2 Radiative Lifetimes Used for the Simulations

Equations (9)

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n 0 + n 1 + n 2 + n 3 = 1 .
d n 1 d t = R 01 n 0 ( R 12 + A 1 ) n 1 + A 21 n 2 + ( σ 31 ϕ 1 + A 31 ) n 3 ,
d n 2 d t = ( σ 02 ( 1 ) ϕ 1 + σ 02 ( 2 ) ϕ 2 ) n 0 + R 12 n 1 ( σ 20 ϕ 2 + R 23 + A 2 ) n 2 + ( R 32 n 3 + A 32 ) n 3 ,
d n 3 d t = R 23 n 2 ( R 32 + σ 31 ϕ 1 + A 3 ) n 3 ,
R i j = σ i j p h ν p P p ,
1 v g d ϕ 1 d t = ( σ 31 n 3 σ 02 ( 1 ) n 0 ) N ϕ 1 α 1 ϕ 1 + σ 31 n 3 ,
1 v g d ϕ 2 d t = ( σ 20 n 2 σ 02 ( 2 ) n 0 ) N ϕ 2 α 2 ϕ 2 + σ 20 n 2 ,
α i = log ( R i ) 2 L + α b ,
Δ N 1 = n 3 σ 02 ( 1 ) σ 31 n 0 , Δ N 2 = n 2 σ 02 ( 2 ) σ 20 n 0 .

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