Abstract

We report on the measured electro-optic coefficients of approximately 150pmV at 1310nm and 1550nm for poled guest–host polymer films made with the chromophore AJ404L. Films were poled using corona poling and parallel-plate poling techniques. The films were fabricated and poled and the electro-optic coefficients measured by two independent laboratories. Corona-poled AJ404L films were spun onto indium-tin oxide-coated glass substrates with and without a cladding layer of UV15LV. The r33 value for the films were measured using the Teng–Man technique for both corona-poled and parallel-plate poled films.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted poling of azo-dye doped polymeric films at room temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-741 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Teng and H. Man, "Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Schildkraut, "Determination of the electrooptic coefficient of a poled polymer film," Appl. Opt. 29, 2839-2842 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Park, C. Lee, and W. Herman, "Analysis of multiple reflection effects in reflective measurements of electro-optic coefficients of poled polymers in multilayer structures," Opt. Express 14, 8866-8884 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted poling of azo-dye doped polymeric films at room temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. Teng and H. Man, "Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Schildkraut, "Determination of the electrooptic coefficient of a poled polymer film," Appl. Opt. 29, 2839-2842 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

Allen, D.

Andreasen, J.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Apitz, D.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Basu, S.

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benter, N.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, R.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted poling of azo-dye doped polymeric films at room temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Erlig, H.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Etile, A.

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, H.

Grote, J.

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W.

Hieringer, W.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B.

Johansen, P.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

Knoesen, A.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kowel, S.

Lee, C.

Luh, T.

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S.

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Man, H.

C. Teng and H. Man, "Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Molau, N.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, "Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733-741 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R.

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nicolao, G.

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

Schildkraut, J.

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted poling of azo-dye doped polymeric films at room temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shu, S.

Song, R.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sounik, J.

Stamatoff, J.

Steier, W.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C.

C. Teng and H. Man, "Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tesi, F.

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsap, B.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C.

Yankelevich, D.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yick, A.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zetts, J.

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, "Photoassisted poling of azo-dye doped polymeric films at room temperature," Appl. Phys. B 54, 486-489 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Song, A. Yick, and W. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191-103 1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Teng and H. Man, "Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

F. Michelotti, G. Nicolao, F. Tesi, and M. Bertolotti, "On the measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled side-chain copolymer films with a modified Teng-Man technique," Chem. Phys. 245, 311326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. Steier, H. Fetterman, and L. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophores," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys.

A. Knoesen, N. Molau, D. Yankelevich, M. Mortazavi, and A. Dienes, "Corona-poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications," Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 1, 73-102 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

Y. Cheng, S. Basu, S. Luo, and T. Luh, "Effect of conjugation length on intrachain chromophore-chromophore interaction in silylene-spaced divinyloligoarene copolymers," Macromolecules 38, 1442-1446 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

J. Grote, J. Zetts, R. Nelson, L. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. Steier, "Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers," Opt. Eng. 40, 2464-2473 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. E

D. Apitz, R. Bertram, N. Benter, W. Hieringer, J. Andreasen, M. Nielsen, P. Johansen, and K. Buse, "Investigation of chromophore-chromophore interaction by electro-optic measurements, linear dichroism, x-ray scattering, and density-functional calculations," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036610-1-10 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

J. Nunzi, C. Fiorini, A. Etile, and F. Kajzar, "All-optical poling in polymers: dynamical aspects and perspectives," Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 141-150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of the chromophores and polymer backbone molecules in the guest–host AJ404L system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the chromophores and polymer backbone molecules in the guest–host AJ404L system. This illustration specifically shows the role of crosslinking in this material system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature, voltage, and current profile for an AJ404L film poled using the parallel-plate poling technique. The time is in seconds, the current (C), temperature (B), and voltage (A) are shown for a complete cycle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illustration of the Teng–Man setup used in this work. The laser is an EFL operating at 1550 nm . The polarized source passes through a half-wave plate (HWP) and then a Soleil–Babinet compensator before it is reflected off the sample. The light from the sample passes through an aperture and then a polarization analyzer before the signal is captured by a detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample of data taken using the Teng–Man measurement setup for a corona poled sample of AJ404 on ITO-coated glass at 45°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample of the data taken for corona-poled AJ404L on a layer of UV15LV at 45°.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V ( t ) = V mod sin ( ω t + ϕ ) ,
P dc = 1 4 r s 2 P 0 [ 1 + tan 2 ( Φ ) 2 tan ( Φ ) cos ( Ψ ps + Ψ c ) ] ,
r p r s = tan ( Φ ) e j Ψ ps .
P mod = 2 π 3 λ n 2 sin 2 ( α ) n 2 sin 2 ( α ) P 0 r 33 r s 2 V mod tan ( Φ ) sin ( Ψ ps + Ψ c ) ,
r 33 = 3 2 4 π λ V mod Δ P mod Δ P dc n 2 sin 2 ( α ) n 2 sin 2 ( α ) .

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