Abstract

Optical properties of neodymium self-activated nanocrystals grown in porous glass have been investigated. Mechanisms responsible for the opacity of pores glasses impregnated with solutions have been studied. Highly transparent glasses with nanocrystals grown in pores have been manufactured. Absorption, fluorescence, and fluorescence decay dynamic measurements were used to identify the phases grown in pores. We have shown that the major phase synthesized in the pores are crystal-like structures similar to that in bulk crystals. Optical properties of nanosize crystals differ from those in bulk single crystals because of specific size effects.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "A luminescence spectroscopy study on supported vanadium and chromium oxide catalysts," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3442-3446 (1992).
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  7. T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "Rare-earth ions adsorbed onto porous glass: luminescence as a characterizing tool," Chem. Mater. 2, 105-110 (1990).
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  9. H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
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  10. R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).
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  23. J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, "Efficient phonon-assisted long-lifetime Nd3+ fluorescence in Cs2NaNdCl6," Phys. Rev. B 10, 4560-4567 (1974).
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  25. H. G. Danielmeyer and H. P. Weber, "Fluorescence in neodymium ultraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 805-808 (1975).
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  26. E. Stark, "Electronic compensating calorimetry as a method of measuring quantum efficiencies and differentiating various nonradiant decay processes in laser crystals," Ph.D. dissertation (Hamburg University, 1983).
  27. P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Sadhu, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, "Understanding the role of particle size on photophysical properties of CdS:Eu3+ nanocrystals," J. Lumin. 126, 387-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Yu. Sharonov, A. B. Bykov, S. Owen, V. Petricevic, R. R. Alfano, G. H. Beall, and N. Borrelli, "Spectroscopic study of transparent forsterite nanocrystalline glass-ceramics doped with chromium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 2046-2052 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. J. Seifert and S. Funke, "Solution enthalpies of hydrates LnCl3.xH2O(Ln=Ce-Lu)," Thermochim. Acta 320, 1-7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and R. H. Byrne, "Rare earth and yttrium phosphate solubilities in aqueous solution," Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 1625-1633 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "A luminescence spectroscopy study on supported vanadium and chromium oxide catalysts," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3442-3446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "Rare-earth ions adsorbed onto porous glass: luminescence as a characterizing tool," Chem. Mater. 2, 105-110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

1975 (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer and H. P. Weber, "Fluorescence in neodymium ultraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 805-808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, "Efficient phonon-assisted long-lifetime Nd3+ fluorescence in Cs2NaNdCl6," Phys. Rev. B 10, 4560-4567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akai, T.

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Akaia, T.

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

Anderson, A. J.

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anpo, M.

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Avnir, D.

H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bassett, W. A.

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beall, G. H.

Blasse, G.

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "A luminescence spectroscopy study on supported vanadium and chromium oxide catalysts," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3442-3446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "Rare-earth ions adsorbed onto porous glass: luminescence as a characterizing tool," Chem. Mater. 2, 105-110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N.

Bratus, A.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brow, R. K.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buddhudu, S.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bykov, A. B.

Byrne, R. H.

X. Liu and R. H. Byrne, "Rare earth and yttrium phosphate solubilities in aqueous solution," Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 1625-1633 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bystrova, A.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, K.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, I-M.

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, P. S.

S. Sadhu, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, "Understanding the role of particle size on photophysical properties of CdS:Eu3+ nanocrystals," J. Lumin. 126, 387-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Click, C. A.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer and H. P. Weber, "Fluorescence in neodymium ultraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 805-808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Deckman, H. W.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deen, G. R.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dejneka, M. J.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demianets, L.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ehrmann, P. R.

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feofilov, S. P.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, I. R.

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Funke, S.

H. J. Seifert and S. Funke, "Solution enthalpies of hydrates LnCl3.xH2O(Ln=Ce-Lu)," Thermochim. Acta 320, 1-7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gan, L. H.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. D.

T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hazenkamp, M. F.

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "A luminescence spectroscopy study on supported vanadium and chromium oxide catalysts," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3442-3446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "Rare-earth ions adsorbed onto porous glass: luminescence as a characterizing tool," Chem. Mater. 2, 105-110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hölsa, J.

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huber, D. L.

D. L. Huber, "Dynamics of incoherent transfer," in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W.M.Yen and P.M.Selzer, eds. (Springer, 1981), Chap. 3.

Jia, W.

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kadono, K.

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kai, T.

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, S.

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koone, N. D.

T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krivandina, E.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubokawa, Y.

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lahtinen, M.

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lastusaari, M.

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu and R. H. Byrne, "Rare earth and yttrium phosphate solubilities in aqueous solution," Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 1625-1633 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mack, H.

H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mamedov, T. G.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Mayanovic, R. A.

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, H.

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morita, M.

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Owen, S.

Page, J. H.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patra, A.

S. Sadhu, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, "Understanding the role of particle size on photophysical properties of CdS:Eu3+ nanocrystals," J. Lumin. 126, 387-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petricevic, V.

Pita, K.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prohorov, A. M.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Que, W. X.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rau, D.

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sadhu, S.

S. Sadhu, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, "Understanding the role of particle size on photophysical properties of CdS:Eu3+ nanocrystals," J. Lumin. 126, 387-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakum, V. P.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Sakurai, T.

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, H. J.

H. J. Seifert and S. Funke, "Solution enthalpies of hydrates LnCl3.xH2O(Ln=Ce-Lu)," Thermochim. Acta 320, 1-7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sevastyanov, B.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharonov, M.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sharonov, M. Yu.

Shcherbakov, I. A.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Sobolev, B.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stark, E.

E. Stark, "Electronic compensating calorimetry as a method of measuring quantum efficiencies and differentiating various nonradiant decay processes in laser crystals," Ph.D. dissertation (Hamburg University, 1983).

Tanahashi, I.

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tissue, B.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tofield, B. C.

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, "Efficient phonon-assisted long-lifetime Nd3+ fluorescence in Cs2NaNdCl6," Phys. Rev. B 10, 4560-4567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Valkonen, J.

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viljanen, J.

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voronko, Yu. K.

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Wang, Y.

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

H. G. Danielmeyer and H. P. Weber, "Fluorescence in neodymium ultraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 805-808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, "Efficient phonon-assisted long-lifetime Nd3+ fluorescence in Cs2NaNdCl6," Phys. Rev. B 10, 4560-4567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazawa, T.

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yen, W. M.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H. B.

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zerda, T. W.

T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhmurova, Z.

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

W. X. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, C. H. Kam, J. Zhou, K. Pita, Y. C. Chan, S. Buddhudu, L. H. Gan, and G. R. Deen, "Photoluminescence characteristics of neodymium oxide nanocrystal/titania/ormosil composite sol-gel thin films," Appl. Phys. A 73, 485-488 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, T. Akaia, and T. Yazawa, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material: sintered porous glass containing rare-earth and transition-metal ions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 231908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Geol. (1)

R. A. Mayanovic, A. J. Anderson, W. A. Bassett, and I-M. Chou, "On the formation and structure of rare-earth element complexes in aqueous solutions under hydrothermal conditions with new data on gadolinium aqua and chloro complexes," Chem. Geol. 239, 266-283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

W. Liu, D. Chen, H. Miyoshi, K. Kadono, and T. Akai, "Colorless transparent fluorescence material at the VUV excitation: the leached sintered glass with impregnation of Tb3+ ions," Chem. Lett. 34, 1176-1177 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "Rare-earth ions adsorbed onto porous glass: luminescence as a characterizing tool," Chem. Mater. 2, 105-110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Mack, R. Reisfeld, and D. Avnir, "Fluorescence of rare earth ions adsorbed on porous vycor glass," Chem. Phys. Lett. 99, 238-239 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf., A (1)

W. Jia, Y. Wang, I. R. Figueroa, and H. Liu, "Spectroscopic study of Cr5+ doped and Cr5+ nanoclusters embedded porous sol-gel SiO2 glasses," Colloids Surf., A 179, 185-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (1)

X. Liu and R. H. Byrne, "Rare earth and yttrium phosphate solubilities in aqueous solution," Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 61, 1625-1633 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. G. Danielmeyer and H. P. Weber, "Fluorescence in neodymium ultraphosphate," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 8, 805-808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

S. Sadhu, P. S. Chowdhury, and A. Patra, "Understanding the role of particle size on photophysical properties of CdS:Eu3+ nanocrystals," J. Lumin. 126, 387-392 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Morita, S. Kajiyama, T. Kai, D. Rau, and T. Sakurai, "Physicochemical control of valence in luminescence of Cr(III) and V(III, IV) complexes embedded in xero-gel and sol-gel SiO2 glasses," J. Lumin. 94-95, 91-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

T. W. Zerda, J. D. Guo, and N. D. Koone, "Diffusion of Er3+ in porous sol-gel glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 211, 150-157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Ehrmann, K. Carlson, J. H. Campbell, C. A. Click, and R. K. Brow, "Neodymium fluorescence quenching by hydroxyl groups in phosphate laser glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 349, 105-114 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

M. Anpo, I. Tanahashi, and Y. Kubokawa, "Photoreducibility of supported metal oxides and lifetimes of their excited triplet," J. Phys. Chem. 84, 3440-3443 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Hazenkamp and G. Blasse, "A luminescence spectroscopy study on supported vanadium and chromium oxide catalysts," J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3442-3446 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. Hölsa, M. Lahtinen, M. Lastusaari, J. Valkonen, and J. Viljanen, "Stability of rare-earth oxychloride phases: bond valence study," J. Solid State Chem. 165, 48-55 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Sharonov, A. Bratus, B. Sevastyanov, Z. Zhmurova, A. Bystrova, E. Krivandina, L. Demianets, and B. Sobolev, "The amplification and excited state absorption of Nd-doped nonstoichiometric crystals with fluorite structure in the 1.3μm region," Opt. Commun. 111, 245-252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, "Dependence of fluorescence lifetimes of Y2O3:Eu3+ nanoparticles on the surrounding medium," Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012-R14015 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Tofield and H. P. Weber, "Efficient phonon-assisted long-lifetime Nd3+ fluorescence in Cs2NaNdCl6," Phys. Rev. B 10, 4560-4567 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Meltzer, W. M. Yen, H. Zheng, S. P. Feofilov, and M. J. Dejneka, "Relaxation between closely spaced electronic levels of rare-earth ions doped in nanocrystals embedded in glass," Phys. Rev. B 66, 224202 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. H. Page, J. Liu, B. Abeles, H. W. Deckman, and D. A. Weitz, "Pore-space correlations in capillary condensation in Vycor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1216-1219 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

Yu. K. Voronko, T. G. Mamedov, V. V. Osiko, A. M. Prohorov, V. P. Sakum, and I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nature of non radiative excitation-energy relaxation in condensed media with high activator concentrations," Sov. Phys. JETP 44, 251-261 (1976).

Thermochim. Acta (1)

H. J. Seifert and S. Funke, "Solution enthalpies of hydrates LnCl3.xH2O(Ln=Ce-Lu)," Thermochim. Acta 320, 1-7 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. Stark, "Electronic compensating calorimetry as a method of measuring quantum efficiencies and differentiating various nonradiant decay processes in laser crystals," Ph.D. dissertation (Hamburg University, 1983).

D. L. Huber, "Dynamics of incoherent transfer," in Laser Spectroscopy of Solids, W.M.Yen and P.M.Selzer, eds. (Springer, 1981), Chap. 3.

Product information sheet, Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transparency (solid curve) and weight loss (dotted curve) of Vycor 7930 porous glass impregnated with H 2 O while drying.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Compression of gas (air) by capillary pressure, (b) growing of bubble caused by negative capillary pressure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Weight loss (solid curve) and pressure in the cell (dashed curve). Inset shows experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

X-ray-diffraction pattern of NdOCl (PDF 08-0046) and powder obtained from H 2 O solution of NdCl 3 ( 4 mol l ) .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectrum of porous glass with synthesized NdOCl nanocrystals in the pores.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence spectra of F 3 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition in NdOCl powder (dotted curve) and NdOCl grown in the pores of Vycor 7930 glass (solid curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Decay of fluorescence on excitation with 5 ns pulses at 800 nm : NdOCl powder (circles), NdOCl grown in pores (triangles). Solid curves show calculated decay for (a) bulk single crystal, (b) 1 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (c) 2 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (d) 4 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (e) 6 × 4 × 40 Nd layer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Nd atoms in NdOCl lattice and decay rate distribution for (a) bulk single crystal, (b) 1 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (c) 2 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (d) 4 × 4 × 40 Nd layer, (e) 6 × 4 × 40 Nd layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Decay of fluorescence in NdOCl crystals grown in pores for (a) 4 mol l , (b) 2 mol l , (c) 1 mol l concentration of NdCl 3 in the solution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fluorescence spectra of F 3 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition in Cs 2 NaNdOCl 6 powder (dotted curve) and in Cs 2 NaNdOCl 6 grown in the pores of Vycor 7930 glass (solid curve).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Decay of fluorescence in Cs 2 NaNdOCl 6 powder (circles) and in Cs 2 NaNdOCl 6 grown in pores (triangles). Dotted lines (corresponding to 200 and 400 ns single exponential decay) are shown for reference.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fluorescence spectra of F 3 2 4 I 9 2 4 transition in NdP 5 O 14 powder (dotted curve) and in NdP 5 O 14 grown in the pores (solid curve).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Decay of fluorescence in NdP 5 O 14 powder (circles) and in NdP 5 O 14 grown in pores (triangles).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ P = 2 σ r ,
P = P 0 1 + R e v t V 0 ,
I = I ( 0 ) exp ( W r a d t W q u e n c h t ) ,
W q u e n c h = K * i 1 R i 6 ,
I = I ( 0 ) j A ( W j ) exp ( W j t ) ,

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