Abstract

We propose to use a mirror to simulate transmission configuration in a reflection confocal optical and Raman microscopy. Such a configuration allows an increased contrast of optical images of cells and increases the efficiency of Raman signal detection from cells by a factor of two.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, "Reflection and transmission confocal microscopy," in Optics in Medicine, Biology and Environmental Research, G.von Bally and S.Khanna, eds. (Elsevier, 1993), pp. 310-315.
  6. W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. Aguilar, M. Lera, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging of spheres and surface profiling by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 4621-4628 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1995).
  10. M.Abramovitz and I.Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1970).
  11. K. Kvien, "Angular spectrum representation of fields diffracted by spherical objects: physical properties and implementations of image field models," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 636-651 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Effects of high angles of convergence on V(Z) in the scanning acoustic microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858-859 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Hammer, D. Schweitzer, B. Michel, E. Thamm, and A. Kolb, "Single scattering by red blood cells," Appl. Opt. 37, 7410-7418 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).
  16. P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).
  17. B. Ovryn and S. H. Izen, "Imaging of transparent spheres through a planar interface using a high-numerical-aperture optical microscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1202-1213 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Multiple traversing of the object in the scanning microscope," Opt. Acta 27, 611-624 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Confocal brightfield imaging techniques using an on-axis scanning optical microscope," in Confocal Microscopy, T.Wilson, ed. (Academic, 1990), pp. 213-243.
  20. C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging using confocal brightfield techniques," in EMAG-Micro '89' (Institute of Physics, 1990), pp. 633-638.

2005 (1)

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (3)

1997 (2)

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

1990 (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Effects of high angles of convergence on V(Z) in the scanning acoustic microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858-859 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Multiple traversing of the object in the scanning microscope," Opt. Acta 27, 611-624 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aguilar, J. F.

Arndtjovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boseck, S.

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Briggs, A.

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs, G. A. D.

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

Cogswell, C. J.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Confocal brightfield imaging techniques using an on-axis scanning optical microscope," in Confocal Microscopy, T.Wilson, ed. (Academic, 1990), pp. 213-243.

C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, "Reflection and transmission confocal microscopy," in Optics in Medicine, Biology and Environmental Research, G.von Bally and S.Khanna, eds. (Elsevier, 1993), pp. 310-315.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging using confocal brightfield techniques," in EMAG-Micro '89' (Institute of Physics, 1990), pp. 633-638.

Demul, F. F. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

Huang, Y. S.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izen, S. H.

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1995).

Jovin, T. M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Karashima, T.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, A.

Kolosov, O.

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Kvien, K.

Lera, M.

Li, Y. Q.

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lobkis, O.

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Michel, B.

Naito, Y.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newton, R. J.

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, T.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Otto, C.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ovryn, B.

Puppels, G. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Robertnicoud, M.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, D.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

J. F. Aguilar, M. Lera, and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging of spheres and surface profiling by confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 4621-4628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Effects of high angles of convergence on V(Z) in the scanning acoustic microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858-859 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Multiple traversing of the object in the scanning microscope," Opt. Acta 27, 611-624 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging using confocal brightfield techniques," in EMAG-Micro '89' (Institute of Physics, 1990), pp. 633-638.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Confocal brightfield imaging techniques using an on-axis scanning optical microscope," in Confocal Microscopy, T.Wilson, ed. (Academic, 1990), pp. 213-243.

C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, "Reflection and transmission confocal microscopy," in Optics in Medicine, Biology and Environmental Research, G.von Bally and S.Khanna, eds. (Elsevier, 1993), pp. 310-315.

Tang, W.

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thamm, E.

Toh-e, A.

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weise, W.

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Wilson, T.

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Effects of high angles of convergence on V(Z) in the scanning acoustic microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858-859 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Multiple traversing of the object in the scanning microscope," Opt. Acta 27, 611-624 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C. G.

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, T.

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

Zinin, P.

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Weise, P. Zinin, T. Wilson, A. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Imaging of spheres with the confocal scanning optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 1800-1802 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Effects of high angles of convergence on V(Z) in the scanning acoustic microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 858-859 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

W. Weise, P. Zinin, A. Briggs, T. Wilson, and S. Boseck, "Examination of the two-dimensional pupil function in coherent scanning microscopes using spherical particles," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104, 181-191 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. G. Xie, Y. Q. Li, W. Tang, and R. J. Newton, "Study of dynamical process of heat denaturation in optically trapped single microorganisms by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6138-6142 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

Y. S. Huang, T. Karashima, M. Yamamoto, T. Ogura, and H. Hamaguchi, "Raman spectroscopic signature of life in a living yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 35, 525-526 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Naito, A. Toh-e, and H. O. Hamaguchi, "In vivo time-resolved Raman imaging of a spontaneous death process of a single budding yeast cell," J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 837-839 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. Demul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robertnicoud, D. J. Arndtjovin, and T. M. Jovin, "Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microscopy," Nature (London) 347, 301-303 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard and T. Wilson, "Multiple traversing of the object in the scanning microscope," Opt. Acta 27, 611-624 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Jena) (1)

P. Zinin, W. Weise, T. Zhai, G. A. D. Briggs, and S. Boseck, "Determination of the defocused transfer function of a confocal reflection microscope by imaging of a sphere," Optik (Jena) 107, 45-48 (1997).

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, O. Kolosov, and S. Boseck, "Fourier optics analysis of spherical-particles image-formation in reflection acoustic microscopy," Optik (Stuttgart) 98, 45-60 (1994).

Wave Motion (1)

P. Zinin, W. Weise, O. Lobkis, and S. Boseck, "The theory of three-dimensional imaging of strong scatterers in scanning acoustic microscopy," Wave Motion 25, 213-236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1995).

M.Abramovitz and I.Stegun, eds., Handbook of Mathematical Functions (Dover, 1970).

C. J. R. Sheppard and C. J. Cogswell, "Reflection and transmission confocal microscopy," in Optics in Medicine, Biology and Environmental Research, G.von Bally and S.Khanna, eds. (Elsevier, 1993), pp. 310-315.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Confocal brightfield imaging techniques using an on-axis scanning optical microscope," in Confocal Microscopy, T.Wilson, ed. (Academic, 1990), pp. 213-243.

C. J. Cogswell and C. J. R. Sheppard, "Imaging using confocal brightfield techniques," in EMAG-Micro '89' (Institute of Physics, 1990), pp. 633-638.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical images of yeast cells on glass ( 100 × objective) in (a) transmission mode, (b) reflection mode (b), and (c) emulated transmission configuration. The circles mark the position of the laser beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated vertical scans through a transparent sphere with refractive index of 1.4 and refractive index of surrounding liquid of 1.33 [14]: (a) reflection microscope with aperture angle 30°; (b) transmission microscope with aperture angle 30°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sketch of the optical rays when cell is attached to (a) the glass substrate or (b) the mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical image of the yeast bakery cells in the reflection confocal microscope. Rectangle shows the area of the Raman mapping. (b) Raman spectra of the cell α measured with green laser excitation ( 532 nm , WiTec system).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Map of the Raman peak intensity centered at 2933 cm 1 . The intensity of the 2933 cm 1 peak is shown in a yellow color scale. (b) Map of the Raman peak intensity centered at 1590 cm 1 . The intensity of the 1590 cm 1 peak is shown in a green color scale.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U ( R , Z ) = 2 V n n = 0 n = n n ( 1 ) n A n I n m ( R , Z ) ,
I n m ( R , Z ) = ( 1 ) m 0 α P ( θ ) exp [ i ( k Z cos θ ) ] J m ( k R cos θ ) P n m ¯ ( cos θ ) sin θ d θ ,
V n = 0 α P ( θ ) sin θ d θ ,
A n = n i j n ( n i k a ) j n ( k a ) j n ( n i k a ) j n ( k a ) n i j n ( n i k a ) h n ( 1 ) ( k a ) j n ( n i k a ) h n ( 1 ) ( k a ) ,
U ( R , Z ) = 1 + 2 V n n = 0 n = n n ( 2 δ m o ) n A n I n m ( R , Z ) 2 .

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