Abstract

A new way of controlling the laser properties of optical materials by designing composite materials that exploit local-field effects is proposed. It is shown that the basic laser properties, such as the radiative lifetime of the upper laser level, small-signal gain coefficient, and saturation intensity can be controlled independently by means of local-field effects. These ideas could be used to design laser systems with significantly improved properties.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, "Fractals: optical susceptibility and giant Raman scattering," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 10, 71-79 (1988).
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  8. R. J. Gehr and R. W. Boyd, "Optical properties of nanostructured optical materials," Chem. Mater. 1996, 1807-1819 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. J. Glauber and M. Lewenstein, "Quantum optics of dielectric media," Phys. Rev. A 43, 467-491 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. de Vries and A. Lagendijk, "Resonant scattering and spontaneous emission in dielectrics: microscopic derivation of local-field effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1381-1384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. W. Milonni, "Field quantization and radiative processes in dispersive dielectric media," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1991-2004 (1995).
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  12. M. S. Tomas, "Local-field corrections to the decay rate of excited molecules in absorbing cavities: the Onsager model," Phys. Rev. A 63, 053811 (2001).
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  13. H. T. Dung, S. Y. Buhmann, and D.-G. Welsch, "Local-field correction to the spontaneous decay rate of atoms embedded in bodies of finite size," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023803 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, "Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 880-883 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. T. N. de Lang, G. H. Wegdam, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Local-field effects on spontaneous emission in a dense supercritical gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5077-5080 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Measurement of local field effects of the host on the lifetimes of embedded emitters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Experimental studies of spontaneous emission from dopants in an absorbing dielectric," Opt. Lett. 30, 732-734 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C.-K. Duan, M. F. Reid, and Z. Wang, "Local field effects on the radiative lifetime of emitters in surrounding media: virtual- or real-cavity model?," Phys. Lett. A 343, 474-480 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Lamouche, P. Lavallard, and T. Gacoin, "Optical properties of dye molecules as a function of the surrounding dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4668-4674 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. F. Wuister, C. de Mello Donega, and A. Meijerink, "Local-field effects on the spontaneous emission rate of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots in dielectric media," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4310-4315 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. P. Dolgaleva, R. W. Boyd, and P. W. Milonni, "Influence of local-field effects on the radiative lifetime of liquid suspensions of Nd:YAG nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 516-521 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nanocomposite materials for nonlinear optics based on local field effects," in Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media, Vol. 82 of Topics in Applied Physics, V.M.Shalaev, ed. (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2002), pp. 1-19.
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of layered composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 297-303 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505-512 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. D. Smith, G. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, and D. A. Gregory, "Cancellation of photoinduced absorption in metal nanoparticle composites through a counterintuitive consequence of local field effects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1625-1631 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. L. Nelson and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced electro-optic response of layered composite materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2417-2419 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear-optical response of porous-glass-based composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2310-2314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Landauer, "The electrical resistance of binary metallic mixtures," J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779-784 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, "Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites," Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970-10973 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).
  35. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).
  36. H. A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons, 2nd ed. (Dover, 1965).
  37. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, 1986).
  38. R. S. Bennink, Y. K. Yoon, and R. W. Boyd, "Accessing the optical nonlinearity of metals with metal-dielectric photonic bandgap structures," Opt. Lett. 24, 1416-1418 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

H. T. Dung, S. Y. Buhmann, and D.-G. Welsch, "Local-field correction to the spontaneous decay rate of atoms embedded in bodies of finite size," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C.-K. Duan, M. F. Reid, and Z. Wang, "Local field effects on the radiative lifetime of emitters in surrounding media: virtual- or real-cavity model?," Phys. Lett. A 343, 474-480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Experimental studies of spontaneous emission from dopants in an absorbing dielectric," Opt. Lett. 30, 732-734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. F. Wuister, C. de Mello Donega, and A. Meijerink, "Local-field effects on the spontaneous emission rate of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots in dielectric media," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4310-4315 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Measurement of local field effects of the host on the lifetimes of embedded emitters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. S. Tomas, "Local-field corrections to the decay rate of excited molecules in absorbing cavities: the Onsager model," Phys. Rev. A 63, 053811 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Lamouche, P. Lavallard, and T. Gacoin, "Optical properties of dye molecules as a function of the surrounding dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4668-4674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Nelson and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced electro-optic response of layered composite materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2417-2419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, Y. K. Yoon, and R. W. Boyd, "Accessing the optical nonlinearity of metals with metal-dielectric photonic bandgap structures," Opt. Lett. 24, 1416-1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. T. N. de Lang, G. H. Wegdam, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Local-field effects on spontaneous emission in a dense supercritical gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5077-5080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. de Vries and A. Lagendijk, "Resonant scattering and spontaneous emission in dielectrics: microscopic derivation of local-field effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1381-1384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gehr and R. W. Boyd, "Optical properties of nanostructured optical materials," Chem. Mater. 1996, 1807-1819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Guo, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Selective reflection from a dense atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1130-1138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lavallard, M. Rosenbauer, and T. Gacoin, "Influence of surrounding dielectrics on the spontaneous emission of sulphorhodamine B molecules," Phys. Rev. A 54, 5450-5453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, "Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 880-883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Milonni, "Field quantization and radiative processes in dispersive dielectric media," J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1991-2004 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

1992

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

R. J. Glauber and M. Lewenstein, "Quantum optics of dielectric media," Phys. Rev. A 43, 467-491 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

V. M. Shalaev and M. I. Stockman, "Fractals: optical susceptibility and giant Raman scattering," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 10, 71-79 (1988).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, "Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites," Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970-10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1952

R. Landauer, "The electrical resistance of binary metallic mixtures," J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779-784 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1906

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses, in metallic films, and in metallic solutions," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 237-288 (1906).
[CrossRef]

1904

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, 385-420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Experimental studies of spontaneous emission from dopants in an absorbing dielectric," Opt. Lett. 30, 732-734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Measurement of local field effects of the host on the lifetimes of embedded emitters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, "Local-field effects and effective-medium theory: a microscopic perspective," Am. J. Phys. 50, 704-709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bennink, R. S.

Bergman, D. J.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, "Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites," Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970-10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 1997).

Boyd, R. W.

K. P. Dolgaleva, R. W. Boyd, and P. W. Milonni, "Influence of local-field effects on the radiative lifetime of liquid suspensions of Nd:YAG nanoparticles," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 516-521 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Bennink, Y. K. Yoon, and R. W. Boyd, "Accessing the optical nonlinearity of metals with metal-dielectric photonic bandgap structures," Opt. Lett. 24, 1416-1418 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Nelson and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced electro-optic response of layered composite materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2417-2419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Smith, G. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, and D. A. Gregory, "Cancellation of photoinduced absorption in metal nanoparticle composites through a counterintuitive consequence of local field effects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1625-1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear-optical response of porous-glass-based composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2310-2314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gehr and R. W. Boyd, "Optical properties of nanostructured optical materials," Chem. Mater. 1996, 1807-1819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of layered composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 297-303 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear susceptibility of composite optical materials in the Maxwell Garnett model," Phys. Rev. A 46, 1614-1629 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

J. E. Sipe and R. W. Boyd, "Nanocomposite materials for nonlinear optics based on local field effects," in Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media, Vol. 82 of Topics in Applied Physics, V.M.Shalaev, ed. (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2002), pp. 1-19.
[CrossRef]

Buhmann, S. Y.

H. T. Dung, S. Y. Buhmann, and D.-G. Welsch, "Local-field correction to the spontaneous decay rate of atoms embedded in bodies of finite size," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

J. Guo, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Selective reflection from a dense atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1130-1138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lang, D. T. N.

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. T. N. de Lang, G. H. Wegdam, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Local-field effects on spontaneous emission in a dense supercritical gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5077-5080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Mello Donega, C.

S. F. Wuister, C. de Mello Donega, and A. Meijerink, "Local-field effects on the spontaneous emission rate of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots in dielectric media," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4310-4315 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, P.

P. de Vries and A. Lagendijk, "Resonant scattering and spontaneous emission in dielectrics: microscopic derivation of local-field effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1381-1384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dolgaleva, K. P.

Duan, C.-K.

C.-K. Duan, M. F. Reid, and Z. Wang, "Local field effects on the radiative lifetime of emitters in surrounding media: virtual- or real-cavity model?," Phys. Lett. A 343, 474-480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dung, H. T.

H. T. Dung, S. Y. Buhmann, and D.-G. Welsch, "Local-field correction to the spontaneous decay rate of atoms embedded in bodies of finite size," Phys. Rev. A 74, 023803 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, G.

Fischer, G. L.

R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear-optical response of porous-glass-based composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2310-2314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gacoin, T.

G. Lamouche, P. Lavallard, and T. Gacoin, "Optical properties of dye molecules as a function of the surrounding dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4668-4674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavallard, M. Rosenbauer, and T. Gacoin, "Influence of surrounding dielectrics on the spontaneous emission of sulphorhodamine B molecules," Phys. Rev. A 54, 5450-5453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, A.

J. Guo, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Selective reflection from a dense atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1130-1138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gehr, R. J.

R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and R. W. Boyd, "Nonlinear-optical response of porous-glass-based composite materials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2310-2314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, G. L. Fischer, and J. E. Sipe, "Nonlinear optical properties of nanocomposite materials," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 505-512 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Gehr and R. W. Boyd, "Optical properties of nanostructured optical materials," Chem. Mater. 1996, 1807-1819 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber and M. Lewenstein, "Quantum optics of dielectric media," Phys. Rev. A 43, 467-491 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, D. A.

Guo, J.

J. Guo, J. Cooper, and A. Gallagher, "Selective reflection from a dense atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. A 53, 1130-1138 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, P. M.

X. C. Zeng, D. J. Bergman, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, "Effective-medium theory for weakly nonlinear composites," Phys. Rev. B 38, 10970-10973 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1962).

Jenekhe, S. A.

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kessener, Y. A. R. R.

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, "Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 880-883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, G. M.

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Experimental studies of spontaneous emission from dopants in an absorbing dielectric," Opt. Lett. 30, 732-734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Measurement of local field effects of the host on the lifetimes of embedded emitters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

P. de Vries and A. Lagendijk, "Resonant scattering and spontaneous emission in dielectrics: microscopic derivation of local-field effects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1381-1384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. T. N. de Lang, G. H. Wegdam, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Local-field effects on spontaneous emission in a dense supercritical gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5077-5080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamouche, G.

G. Lamouche, P. Lavallard, and T. Gacoin, "Optical properties of dye molecules as a function of the surrounding dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4668-4674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Landauer, R.

R. Landauer, "The electrical resistance of binary metallic mixtures," J. Appl. Phys. 23, 779-784 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Lavallard, P.

G. Lamouche, P. Lavallard, and T. Gacoin, "Optical properties of dye molecules as a function of the surrounding dielectric medium," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4668-4674 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavallard, M. Rosenbauer, and T. Gacoin, "Influence of surrounding dielectrics on the spontaneous emission of sulphorhodamine B molecules," Phys. Rev. A 54, 5450-5453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

R. J. Glauber and M. Lewenstein, "Quantum optics of dielectric media," Phys. Rev. A 43, 467-491 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lorentz, H. A.

H. A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons, 2nd ed. (Dover, 1965).

H. A. Lorentz, Theory of Electrons, 2nd ed. (Teubner, 1916).

Maki, J. J.

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malcuit, M. S.

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses, in metallic films, and in metallic solutions," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 205, 237-288 (1906).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Maxwell Garnett, "Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, 385-420 (1904).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

S. F. Wuister, C. de Mello Donega, and A. Meijerink, "Local-field effects on the spontaneous emission rate of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots in dielectric media," J. Chem. Phys. 121, 4310-4315 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milonni, P. W.

Nelson, R. L.

R. L. Nelson and R. W. Boyd, "Enhanced electro-optic response of layered composite materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2417-2419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osaheni, J. A.

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, D. N.

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Experimental studies of spontaneous emission from dopants in an absorbing dielectric," Opt. Lett. 30, 732-734 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Kumar, D. N. Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, "Measurement of local field effects of the host on the lifetimes of embedded emitters," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reid, M. F.

C.-K. Duan, M. F. Reid, and Z. Wang, "Local field effects on the radiative lifetime of emitters in surrounding media: virtual- or real-cavity model?," Phys. Lett. A 343, 474-480 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken and Y. A. R. R. Kessener, "Local field effects and electric and magnetic dipole transitions in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 880-883 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenbauer, M.

P. Lavallard, M. Rosenbauer, and T. Gacoin, "Influence of surrounding dielectrics on the spontaneous emission of sulphorhodamine B molecules," Phys. Rev. A 54, 5450-5453 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. J. P. Schuurmans, D. T. N. de Lang, G. H. Wegdam, R. Sprik, and A. Lagendijk, "Local-field effects on spontaneous emission in a dense supercritical gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5077-5080 (1998).
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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1871-1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Maki, M. S. Malcuit, J. E. Sipe, and R. W. Boyd, "Linear and nonlinear optical measurements of the Lorentz local field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 972-975 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Composite material structures: (a) Maxwell–Garnett geometry, (b) Bruggeman geometry, (c) layered geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of the principal parameters that controls the basic operation of a laser with the effective refractive index of the composite material.

Equations (43)

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ϵ eff ϵ h ϵ eff + 2 ϵ h = f i ϵ i ϵ h ϵ i + 2 ϵ h .
0 = f a ϵ a ϵ eff ϵ a + 2 ϵ eff + f b ϵ b ϵ eff ϵ b + 2 ϵ eff .
ϵ eff = f a ϵ a + f b ϵ b .
1 ϵ eff = f a ϵ a + f b ϵ b .
p ̃ = α E loc ,
E ̃ loc = E ̃ + 4 π 3 P ̃ ,
P ̃ = N p ̃ ,
P ̃ = N α ( E ̃ + 4 π 3 P ̃ ) .
P ̃ = χ ( 1 ) E ̃ ,
χ ( 1 ) = N α 1 4 π 3 N α .
ϵ ( 1 ) 1 ϵ ( 1 ) + 2 = 4 π 3 N α .
χ ( 1 ) = ϵ ( 1 ) + 2 3 N α .
E ̃ loc = ϵ ( 1 ) + 2 3 E ̃ .
L = ϵ ( 1 ) + 2 3
A = 1 τ = 2 π V 12 ( ω 0 ) 2 ρ ( ω 0 ) .
V 12 , loc L n eff .
ρ ( ω 0 ) n eff 2 .
A loc = n eff L 2 A vac .
τ loc = τ vac n eff L 2 .
2 E ̃ + 1 c 2 2 E ̃ t 2 = 4 π c 2 2 P ̃ t 2 .
E ̃ = E ( z ) e i ω t + c.c. = A 0 e i ( k ¯ z + ω t ) + c.c.
Re ( k ¯ ) k = ω n eff c ,
Im ( k ¯ ) = 1 2 α 0 = 1 2 g 0 .
P ̃ = χ loc ( 1 ) E ̃ ,
χ loc ( 1 ) = c α 0 , vac ( Δ ) 4 π ω b a L ( T 2 Δ i ) ,
α 0 , vac ( Δ ) = 4 π ω b a c N w eq μ b a 2 T 2 ( T 2 2 Δ 2 + 1 ) ,
L = T 2 Δ + i T 2 ( Δ Δ L ) + i ,
ϵ eff = 1 f r e λ 0 c N Δ Δ L + i T 2 .
g 0 , loc = 4 π k n eff 2 Im [ χ loc ( 1 ) ]
g 0 , loc ( Δ ) = α 0 , vac ( Δ ) n eff ω ω b a L 2 = g 0 , vac ( Δ ) n eff ω ω b a L 2
g 0 , loc ( Δ ) = g 0 , vac ( 0 ) n eff L 2 .
g = g 0 1 + I I s .
I s = c n eff 2 π 2 4 μ b a 2 T 1 T 2 .
I loc = n eff c 2 π E loc 2 = n eff c 2 π L 2 E 2 = L 2 I .
T 1 , loc = T 1 , vac n eff L 2 .
I s = c n eff 2 π 2 4 μ b a 2 T 1 , loc T 2 , loc = c n eff 2 π 2 n eff L 2 4 μ b a 2 T 1 , vac T 2 , vac .
g loc = g 0 , loc 1 + I loc I s
g loc = g 0 , loc 1 + I I s , loc .
I s , loc = n eff 2 I s , vac .
A loc = n eff L 2 A vac ,
g 0 , loc = L 2 n eff g 0 , vac ,
I s , loc = n eff 2 I s , vac .
L = n eff 2 + 2 3 .

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