Abstract

A self-referenced optical frequency comb, derived from a mode-locked fiber laser, and a cavity-enhanced diode-laser-based saturated absorption spectrometer were employed to measure the absolute frequency of 55 absorption lines of the P and R branches of the 2ν1 band of C212HD at 1.5μm with a one standard deviation uncertainty of better than 2.5kHz for all lines measured. The shift sensitivities of the P(16) line to changes in power, pressure, and modulation amplitude have been studied in detail. Improved values of the ground-state molecular constants are obtained.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (6)

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long-term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express 13, 904-909 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Fusina, F. Tamassia, and G. Di Lonardo, "The infrared spectrum of C212HD: the stretching-bending combination bands in the 1800-4700 cm−1 region," Mol. Phys. 103, 2613-2620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Felder, "Practical realization of the definition of the meter, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003)," Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

2000 (4)

W. C. Swann and S. L. Gilbert, "Pressure-induced shift and broadening of 1510-1540 nm acetylene wavelength calibration lines," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1263-1270 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Alcock, A. J.

Awaji, Y.

Barwood, G. P.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernard, J. E.

Blatt, S.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulanger, J.-S.

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, M. M.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breton, M.

Chepurov, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Cundy, S.

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cyr, N.

Czajkowski, A.

Daimon, Y.

de Labachelerie, M.

Delaney, M. J.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Lonardo, G.

L. Fusina, F. Tamassia, and G. Di Lonardo, "The infrared spectrum of C212HD: the stretching-bending combination bands in the 1800-4700 cm−1 region," Mol. Phys. 103, 2613-2620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donley, E. A.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dubé, P.

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, "Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν1+ν3) overtone band of C213H2," Opt. Commun. 234, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Felder, R.

R. Felder, "Practical realization of the definition of the meter, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003)," Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fortier, T. M.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusina, L.

L. Fusina, F. Tamassia, and G. Di Lonardo, "The infrared spectrum of C212HD: the stretching-bending combination bands in the 1800-4700 cm−1 region," Mol. Phys. 103, 2613-2620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, S. L.

Gill, P.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grosche, G.

Guo, R.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.

Hänsch, T. W.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harada, S.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hardwick, J. L.

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

Heavner, T. P.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Krieger, 1991), pp. 14, 288, and 390.

Hirano, M.

Hollberg, L.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Kubina, P. Adel, F. Adler, G. Grosche, T. Hänsch, R. Holzwarth, A. Leitenstorfer, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, "Long-term comparison of two fiber based frequency comb systems," Opt. Express 13, 904-909 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express 14, 5223-5231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, "Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system," Opt. Lett. 29, 2467-2469 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324-2326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ido, T.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikegami, T.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Ippen, E. P.

Itano, W. M.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefferts, S. R.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kourogi, M.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kubina, P.

Latrasse, C.

Lea, S. N.

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Levi, F.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipphardt, B.

Ludlow, A. D.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madej, A. A.

A. A. Madej, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, J. E. Bernard, and S. Chepurov, "Accurate absolute frequencies from 1511to1545 nm of the ν1+ν3 band of C212H2 determined with laser frequency comb interval measurements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2200-2208 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, A. J. Alcock, A. Czajkowski, and S. Chepurov, "Accurate absolute frequencies of the ν1+ν3 band of C213H2 determined using an infrared mode-locked Cr:YAG laser frequency comb," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 741-749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, "Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν1+ν3) overtone band of C213H2," Opt. Commun. 234, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, H. S.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, Z. T.

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, H.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express 14, 5223-5231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, "Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system," Opt. Lett. 29, 2467-2469 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324-2326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

Minoshima, K.

Moutzouris, K.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, K.

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324-2326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Nakagawa, M. de Labachelerie, Y. Awaji, and M. Kourogi, "Accurate optical frequency atlas of the 1.5 μm bands of acetylene," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2708-2714 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachelerie, K. Nakagawa, Y. Awaji, and M. Ohtsu, "High-frequency-stability laser at 1.5 μm using Doppler-free molecular lines," Opt. Lett. 20, 572-574 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. de Labachelerie, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, "Ultranarrow C213H2 saturated-absorption lines at 1.5 μm," Opt. Lett. 19, 840-842 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

Nakazawa, M.

Nelson, L. E.

Ohtsu, M.

Okumura, K.

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

Onae, A.

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, "Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb," Opt. Express 14, 5223-5231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F.-L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, "Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system," Opt. Lett. 29, 2467-2469 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, A. Onae, J. Jiang, R. Guo, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Absolute frequency measurement of an acetylene-stabilized laser at 1542 nm," Opt. Lett. 28, 2324-2326 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

Onishi, M.

Oskay, W. H.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, T. E.

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberge, R.

Rowley, W. R. C.

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schnatz, H.

Schoene, E. A.

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, K.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

Tamassia, F.

L. Fusina, F. Tamassia, and G. Di Lonardo, "The infrared spectrum of C212HD: the stretching-bending combination bands in the 1800-4700 cm−1 region," Mol. Phys. 103, 2613-2620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

Tauser, F.

Têtu, M.

Tyng, V.

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, B.

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E. N.

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zelevinsky, T.

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

C. S. Edwards, H. S. Margolis, G. P. Barwood, S. N. Lea, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High-accuracy frequency atlas of C213H2 in the 1.5 μm region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 977-983 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (2)

J. L. Hardwick, Z. T. Martin, E. A. Schoene, V. Tyng, and E. N. Wolf, "Diode laser absorption spectrum of cold bands of C2HD at 6500 cm−1," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 239, 208-215 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Edwards, G. P. Barwood, H. S. Margolis, P. Gill, and W. R. C. Rowley, "High precision frequency measurements of the ν1+ν3 combination band of C212H2 in the 1.5 μm region," J. Mol. Spectrosc. 234, 143-148 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Metrologia (1)

R. Felder, "Practical realization of the definition of the meter, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2003)," Metrologia 42, 323-325 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

L. Fusina, F. Tamassia, and G. Di Lonardo, "The infrared spectrum of C212HD: the stretching-bending combination bands in the 1800-4700 cm−1 region," Mol. Phys. 103, 2613-2620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Onae, T. Ikegami, K. Sugiyama, F.-L. Hong, K. Minoshima, H. Matsumoto, K. Nakagawa, M. Yoshida, and S. Harada, "Optical frequency link between an acetylene stabilized laser at 1542 nm and an Rb stabilized laser at 778 nm using a two-color mode-locked fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 183, 181-187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Czajkowski, A. A. Madej, and P. Dubé, "Development and study of a 1.5 μm optical frequency standard referenced to the P(16) saturated absorption line in the (ν1+ν3) overtone band of C213H2," Opt. Commun. 234, 259-268 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, "Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2264-2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Oskay, S. A. Diddams, E. A. Donley, T. M. Fortier, T. P. Heavner, L. Hollberg, W. M. Itano, S. R. Jefferts, M. J. Delaney, K. Kim, F. Levi, T. E. Parker, and J. C. Bergquist, "Single-atom optical clock with high accuracy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 020801 (2006), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dubé, A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, J.-S. Boulanger, and S. Cundy, "Electric quadrupole shift cancellation in single-ion optical frequency standards," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Boyd, A. D. Ludlow, S. Blatt, S. M. Foreman, T. Ido, T. Zelevinsky, and J. Ye, "Sr87 lattice clock with inaccuracy below 10−15," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083002 (2007), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis," Science 288, 635-639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Onae, K. Okumura, F.-L. Hong, H. Matsumoto, and K. Nakagawa, "Accurate frequency atlas of 1.5 μm band of acetylene measured by a mode-locked fiber laser," in Digest of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (IEEE, 2004), IEEE Catalog 04CH37570, pp. 666-667.
[CrossRef]

J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology (Springer, 2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Krieger, 1991), pp. 14, 288, and 390.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for absolute frequency measurement of the acetylene-d absorption lines. EDF, erbium-doped fiber; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; OC, output coupler; CL, collimated lens; PBS, polarization beam splitter; λ 2 , half-wave plate; λ 4 , quarter-wave plate; BF, birefringent filter; OI, optical isolator; PC, polarization controller; HNLF, highly nonlinear fiber; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; M, mirror; L, lens; G, grating; APD, avalanche photodiode; BBO, β-barium borate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical beat note between the acetylene-d stabilized laser (locked to enhancement cavity only) and the fiber comb. The S/N ratio is 40 dB at 300 kHz RBW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed systematic shift dependence of the laser frequency stabilized to the P(16) line as a function of the modulation amplitude. The plotted frequency is the observed measured frequency relative to the value of f = 195 , 903 , 630 , 363.6 kHz obtained under the stated operating conditions given in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frequency of the diode laser system locked to the P(16) line of the 2 ν 1 band of C 2 12 H D . The error bars reflect the standard deviation of the individual 1 s readings of each run.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observed difference between the measured combination differences based on the absolute frequency measurements and those obtained using the fitted molecular constants determined in this paper.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Estimated Systematic Uncertainties ( 1 σ Confidence Interval) Associated with the Absolute Frequency Measurement of the C 2 12 H D Reference Lines

Tables Icon

Table 2 Operating Parameters and Characteristics of the Stabilized Laser System

Tables Icon

Table 3 Observed Line Frequency and Vacuum Wavelengths for the Transitions in the 2 ν 1 Band of C 2 12 H D a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Comparison of Ground State Molecular Constant Results for the 2 ν 1 Band of C 2 12 H D

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f laser = n × f rep ± f ceo ± f B ,
E ( J ) h c = B J ( J + 1 ) D J 2 ( J + 1 ) 2 + H J 3 ( J + 1 ) 3 + L J 4 ( J + 1 ) 4 + ,
Δ 2 F = ν R ( J 1 ) ν P ( J + 1 ) = ( 4 B 6 D + 27 4 H + 27 4 L ) ( J + 1 2 ) + ( 8 D + 34 H + 75 L ) ( J + 1 2 ) 3 + ( 12 H + 100 L ) ( J + 1 2 ) 5 + 16 L ( J + 1 2 ) 7 ,

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