Abstract

A simple and robust setup for femtosecond time-resolved imaging interferometry of surfaces is described. The apparatus is capable of measuring both very small phase shifts (3×102rad) and amplitude changes (1%) with micrometer spatial resolution (1μm). Interferograms are processed using a 2D-Fourier transform algorithm. We discuss the image formation and the physical interpretation of the measured interferograms. The technique is applied to measure transient changes of a GaAs surface irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses with fluences near the ablation threshold.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, N. Nishimura, E. N. Glezer, A. M. T. Kim, and E. Mazur, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in water from femtoseconds to microseconds," Opt. Express 10, 196-203 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. H. Massig and J. Heppner, "Fringe-pattern analysis with high accuracy by use of the Fourier-transform method: theory and experimantal tests," Appl. Opt. 40, 2081-2088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154-155, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

1982 (1)

1933 (1)

V. P. Linnik, "Ein apparat für mikroskopisch-interferometrische untersuchung reflektierender objekte (mikrointerferometer)," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 18-23 (1933).

Anisimov, S. I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Audebert, P.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachor, H.-A.

Badger, A. D.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bialkowski, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boing, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bone, D. J.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon, 1980).

Car, R.

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Casson, J. L.

S. R. Greenfield, J. L. Casson, and A. C. Koskelo, "Nanosecond interferometric studies of surface deformations of dielectrics induced by laser irradiation," in High-Power Laser Ablation III, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 557-566 (2001).

Cavalleri, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiarotti, G.

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Daguzan, Ph.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeVelis, J. B.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, (SPIE/AIP, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, A.

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downer, M. C.

El-Khamhawy, A.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

Evans, R.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallies, F.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

Francon, M.

M. Francon, Jr., Optical Interferometry (Academic, 1966).

Fukumura, H.

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Furutani, H.

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gahagan, K. T.

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. P.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghiglia, D. C.

Glezer, E. N.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Greenfield, S. R.

S. R. Greenfield, J. L. Casson, and A. C. Koskelo, "Nanosecond interferometric studies of surface deformations of dielectrics induced by laser irradiation," in High-Power Laser Ablation III, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 557-566 (2001).

Grillon, G.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gruzdev, V. E.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

Guizard, S.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, T. A.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamoniaux, G.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppner, J.

Holm, R. T.

R. T. Holm, "Convention confusions," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 21-55.

Ina, H.

Kim, A. M. T.

Kobayashi, S.

Kogan, B.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Koskelo, A. C.

S. R. Greenfield, J. L. Casson, and A. C. Koskelo, "Nanosecond interferometric studies of surface deformations of dielectrics induced by laser irradiation," in High-Power Laser Ablation III, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 557-566 (2001).

Krastev, K.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudryashov, S.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Kujawinska, M.

M. Kujawinska, "Spatial phase measurement methods," in Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques, D.W.Robinson and G.T.Reid, eds. (IOP, 1993), pp. 141-193.

Linnik, V. P.

V. P. Linnik, "Ein apparat für mikroskopisch-interferometrische untersuchung reflektierender objekte (mikrointerferometer)," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 18-23 (1933).

Liu, J. B.

Mahdieh, M.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marple, S. Lawrence

S. Lawrence Marple, Jr., Digital Spectral Analysis with Applications, (Prentice-Hall, 1987).

Martin, P.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massig, J. H.

Mastin, G. A.

Masubuchi, T.

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Meyerter-Vehn, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Möller, R.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Moore, D. S.

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Dos Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, "Frequency-domain interferometer for measuring the phase and amplitude of a femtosecond pump-probing a laser-produced plasma," Opt. Lett. 19, 1997-1999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, N.

Nugent, K. A.

Oparin, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, "Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985), pp. 429-443.

Parrent, G. B.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, (SPIE/AIP, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Parrinello, M.

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petite, G.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabie, R. L.

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reho, J. H.

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rethfeld, B.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

Reynolds, G. O.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, (SPIE/AIP, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, D. W.

D. W. Robinson, "Phase unwrapping methods," in Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques, D.W.Robinson and G.T.Reid, eds. (IOP, 1993), pp. 194-229.

Roddier, C.

Roddier, F.

Romero, L. A.

Ronney, P. D.

Rousse, A.

Sandeman, J.

Schaffer, C. B.

Seekamp, J.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Selloni, A.

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154-155, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "Femtosekunden-laserinduzierte phasenübergänge in halbleitern," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Essen, 1994).

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Sotomayor-Torres, C.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Stojanovic, N.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Takeda, M.

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

V. V. Temnov, "Ultrafast laser-induced phenomena in solids studied by time-resolved interferometry," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Duisburg-Essen, 2004).

Thompson, B. J.

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, (SPIE/AIP, 1989).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154-155, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Weyers, B.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon, 1980).

Zhang, Q. M.

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, "Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy," Appl. Phys. A 78, 483-489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154-155, 1-10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

V. P. Linnik, "Ein apparat für mikroskopisch-interferometrische untersuchung reflektierender objekte (mikrointerferometer)," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 1, 18-23 (1933).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. T. Gahagan, D. S. Moore, D. J. Funk, and J. H. Reho, and R. L. Rabie, "Ultrafast interferometric microscopy for laser-driven shock wave characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3679-3682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

T. Masubuchi, H. Furutani, H. Fukumura, and H. Masuhara, "Laser-induced nanometer-nanosecond expansion and contraction dynamics of poly (methyl methacrylate) film studied by time-resolved interferometry," J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 2518-2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, M. Boing, A. Cavalleri, and D. von der Linde, "Thermal and nonthermal melting of gallium arsenide after femtosecond laser excitation," Phys. Rev. B 58, R11805-R11808 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. M. Zhang, G. Chiarotti, A. Selloni, R. Car, and M. Parrinello, "Atomic structure and bonding in liquid GaAs from ab initio molecular dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 42, 5071-5081 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyerter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, "Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 224-227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Evans, A. D. Badger, F. Fallies, M. Mahdieh, T. A. Hall, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, "Time- and space-resolved optical probing of femtosecond-laser-driven shock waves in aluminum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3359-3362 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (14)

S. R. Greenfield, J. L. Casson, and A. C. Koskelo, "Nanosecond interferometric studies of surface deformations of dielectrics induced by laser irradiation," in High-Power Laser Ablation III, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4065, 557-566 (2001).

S. Lawrence Marple, Jr., Digital Spectral Analysis with Applications, (Prentice-Hall, 1987).

M. Kujawinska, "Spatial phase measurement methods," in Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques, D.W.Robinson and G.T.Reid, eds. (IOP, 1993), pp. 141-193.

M. Francon, Jr., Optical Interferometry (Academic, 1966).

V. V. Temnov, "Ultrafast laser-induced phenomena in solids studied by time-resolved interferometry," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Duisburg-Essen, 2004).

D. W. Robinson, "Phase unwrapping methods," in Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques, D.W.Robinson and G.T.Reid, eds. (IOP, 1993), pp. 194-229.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, S. Kudryashov, D. von der Linde, B. Kogan, B. Weyers, R. Möller, J. Seekamp, and C. Sotomayor-Torres, "Microscopic characterization of ablation craters produced by femtosecond laser pulses," in High-Power Laser Ablation IV, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 4760, 1032-1039 (2002).

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, B. Rethfeld, V. E. Gruzdev, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Ionization mechanisms in dielectrics irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," in High Power Laser Ablation V, C.R.Phipps, ed., Proc. SPIE 5448, 1119-1126 (2004).

R. T. Holm, "Convention confusions," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 21-55.

E. D. Palik, "Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)," in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E.D.Palik, ed. (Academic, 1985), pp. 429-443.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, "Femtosekunden-laserinduzierte phasenübergänge in halbleitern," Ph.D. dissertation (University of Essen, 1994).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, (Pergamon, 1980).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

G. O. Reynolds, J. B. DeVelis, G. B. Parrent, Jr., and B. J. Thompson, The New Physical Optics Notebook: Tutorials in Fourier Optics, (SPIE/AIP, 1989).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for ultrafast Michelson interferometry with a Linnik imaging configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Formation of an interferogram in a Linnik microinterferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Initial and (b) transient interferograms of a GaAs(100) surface excited with F = 0.98 F abl , Δ t = 800 ps .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transient interferogram [Fig. 3b] multiplied by a Hamming window, (b) 2D Fourier transform of (b), and (c) isolated right ac peak of (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)Reconstructed transient phase shift Ψ ind ( x , y ) and (b) amplitude change r ind ( x , y ) . Plot (c) represents the transient phase and amplitude profiles along the vertical cross sections in (a) and (b). Frame size: 180 μ m × 130 μ m , Δ t = 800 ps .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Physical interpretation of interferometric measurements. Complex reflectivity vectors for three points in Fig. 5c: A, unexcited GaAs; B, liquid GaAs; C, expanded surface. The dark region contains all possible complex reflection coefficients of an undeformed surface. (b) Surface plot representation of the transient phase in Fig. 5a.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Transient interferogram at ablating GaAs surface ( F = 1.3 F abl , Δ t = 1.8 ns ), (b) 2D Fourier transform of the windowed transient interferogram, (c) isolated right ac peak, (d) horizontally unwrapped phase Ψ ind , (e) vertically unwrapped phase Ψ ind , (f) cross sections of phase maps (d) and (e), and (g) inconsistent phase values.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Interferogram of the final ablation crater ( F = 1.3 F abl , Δ t = ), (b) 2D Fourier transform of the windowed final interferogram, (c) isolated right ac peak, (d) surface plot representation of the final ablation crater, and (e) elliptical fit to the crater boundary.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Elliptically unwrapped transient phase of Fig. 8d, (b) vertical and horizontal phase cross sections of (a), (c) result of unwrapping of phase map (a) using the band-limit approach, (d) vertical and horizontal phase cross sections of (c), and (e) surface plot representation of transient phase (c).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Temporal evolution of the maximum phase shift in the center of the laser-excited area; row data and corrected data.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Transient surface reflectivity measured directly by time-resolved microscopy and (b) surface reflectivity r ind 2 ( x , y ) reconstructed from the interferogram of Fig. 8a.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Temporal evolution of transient phase shift Ψ ind and amplitude change r ind at points B and C in Fig. 5c.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( x , y ) = E obj ( x , y ) 2 + E ref ( x , y ) 2 + 2 Re [ E obj ( x , y ) E ref * ( x , y ) ] .
E obj ( x , y ) = r ̃ ( x , y ) A 1 ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ 1 ( x , y ) ] ,
E ref ( x , y ) = A 2 ( x , y ) exp [ i ϕ 2 ( x , y ) ] .
r ̃ ( x , y ) = r ( x , y ) exp [ i Ψ ( x , y ) ] ,
I in = r in 2 A 1 2 + A 2 2 + 4 r in A 1 A 2 cos ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 + Ψ in ) ( initial ) ,
I tr = r tr 2 A 1 2 + A 2 2 + 4 r tr A 1 A 2 cos ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 + Ψ tr ) ( trans. ) .
Ψ ind ( x , y ) = Ψ tr ( x , y ) Ψ in ( x , y ) ( transient phase shift ) ,
r ind ( x , y ) = r tr ( x , y ) r in ( x , y ) ( transient ampl. change ) .
ϕ 1 ( x , y ) ϕ 2 ( x , y ) 2 π f 0 x + const .
A 1 ( x , y ) const , A 2 ( x , y ) const .
I ( x , y ) = [ 1 + r 2 ( x , y ) ] + 2 r ( x , y ) cos [ 2 π f 0 x + Ψ ( x , y ) ] ,
f < f max = NA λ ,
f 0 f max = sin α sin β < 1 .
Δ x = 6.0 μ m , Δ y = 1.5 μ m .
δ Ψ ind ( rms ) π 100 , δ r ind ( rms ) 0.01
r ̃ ( x ) = r ( y ) e i [ ϕ ( y ) + 2 k d ( y ) ] ,
r ̃ Fr ( y ) = r ( y ) e i ϕ ( y ) = 1 n ̃ ( y ) 1 + n ̃ ( y ) .
n ̃ liquid = 2.0 3.4 i .
n ̃ Dr = 1 ω p 2 ω 2 1 1 i ω τ c ,
d ( λ 4 π ) δ ϕ = 47 nm .

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