Abstract

We present a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the generation of few-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses via the nonlinear effect of optical rectification and of their coherent detection via electro-optic sampling. The effects of dispersive velocity matching, absorption of the optical and the THz waves, crystal thickness, pulse diameter, pump pulse duration, and two-photon absorption are discussed. The theoretical calculations are compared with the measured spectra of THz pulses that have been generated and detected in crystals of the highly nonlinear organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). The results are found to be in agreement with the theory. By the selection of the optical pump wavelength between 700 and 1600nm, we achieved several maxima of the overall generation and detection efficiency in the spectral range between 0.4 and 6.7THz, with an optimum at 2THz generated with 1500nm laser pulses.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  36. Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (5)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87, 1186-1191 (2004).

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, "Widely tunable terahertz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000-3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, F. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Use of the organic crystal DAST for terahertz beam applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 675-677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, "Far-infrared properties of DAST," Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764-15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (1)

1996 (5)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, "Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4′-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143-149 (1995).

1992 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515-3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Beard, M. C.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764-15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515-3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bessho, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bichler, M.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boden, E. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002).

Bosshard, Ch.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buijserd, A. N.

Carrig, T. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Darrow, J. T.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgi, L.

Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ducret, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, "Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4′-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143-149 (1995).

Ehrensberger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, Ch.

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Flörsheimer, M.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

Galvanauskas, A.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Günter, P.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, "Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4′-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143-149 (1995).

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Han, P. Y.

Hebling, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000-3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirosumi, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulliger, J.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Jazbinsek, M.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensby, K.

Jin, Y.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaatz, P.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Kawase, K.

Keiding, S. R.

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, "Far-infrared properties of DAST," Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, "Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4′-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143-149 (1995).

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kübler, C.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000-3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T.-M.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meade, T.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, M.

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, M.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, "Widely tunable terahertz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87, 1186-1191 (2004).

Ohtake, H.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, "Widely tunable terahertz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, F. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Use of the organic crystal DAST for terahertz beam applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 675-677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perlin, V.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phelps, P. D.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Prêtre, Ph.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Rodriguez, G.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schlesser, R.

G. Knöpfle, R. Schlesser, R. Ducret, and P. Günter, "Optical and nonlinear optical properties of 4′-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) crystals," Nonlinear Opt. 9, 143-149 (1995).

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764-15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, A.

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sharp Clement, T.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

J. H. Bechtel and W. L. Smith, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductors with picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 13, 3515-3522 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sohma, S.

Spreiter, R.

Ch. Bosshard, R. Spreiter, L. Degiorgi, and P. Günter, "Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the organic crystal DAST: polarization dependence and contribution of molecular vibrations to the linear electro-optic effect," Phys. Rev. B 66, 205107 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, "Electro-optical effects in organic crystals," Ph.D. thesis (ETH Zurich, 1999).

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000-3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, K. R.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, K.

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, "Organic nonlinear optical materials," in Advances in Nonlinear Optics (Gordon and Breach, 1995), Vol. 1.

Takahashi, H.

Tanaka, K.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

Taniuchi, T.

Tashiro, H.

Tauser, F.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, "How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma," Nature 414, 286-289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

T. J. Carrig, G. Rodriguez, T. Sharp Clement, A. J. Taylor, and K. R. Stewart, "Scaling of terahertz radiation via optical rectification in electro-optic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 121-123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tübel, S.

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Transient photoconductivity in GaAs as measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 62, 15764-15777 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uhd Jepsen, P.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Urata, Y.

van der Valk, N. C. J.

Wada, S.

Walther, M.

M. Schall, M. Walther, and P. Uhd Jepsen, "Fundamental and second-order phonon processes in CdTe and ZnTe," Phys. Rev. B 64, 094301 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Walther, K. Jensby, S. R. Keiding, H. Takahashi, and H. Ito, "Far-infrared properties of DAST," Opt. Lett. 25, 911-913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87, 1186-1191 (2004).

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Winful, H.

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, and A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. Uhd Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge U. Press, 2002).

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

M. Nagai, K. Tanaka, H. Ohtake, T. Bessho, T. Sugiura, T. Hirosumi, and M. Yoshida, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation by electro-optical process in GaAs using 1.56μm fiber laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3974-3976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinsek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, F. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, "Use of the organic crystal DAST for terahertz beam applications," Opt. Lett. 25, 675-677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling-wave electrooptic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, X. F. Ma, Y. Jin, T.-M. Lu, E. P. Boden, P. D. Phelps, K. R. Stewart, and C. P. Yakymyshyn, "Terahertz optical rectification from a nonlinear organic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 3080-3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Terahertz-induced lensing and its use for the detection of terahertz pulses in a birefringent crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2229-2231 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses from semiconductor surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Kübler, R. Huber, S. Tübel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multi-terahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, "Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000-3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4′-N′-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
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C. R. Phys. (1)

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensberger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys. 3, 449-462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

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K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, and Y. Watanabe, "Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and its application to drug detection," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87, 1186-1191 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, "Widely tunable terahertz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Nature (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

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Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Schneider, I. Biaggio, and P. Günter, "Optimized generation of THz pulses via optical rectification in the organic salt DAST," Opt. Commun. 224, 337-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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[CrossRef]

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See http://spec.jpl.nasa.gov.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive index n 1 of DAST between 1.3 and 4.1 THz . Circles, measured data; solid curve, calculation of n 1 based on the harmonic-oscillator model with two oscillators at 1.10 and 3.05 THz .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient α 1 of DAST. Circles, measured data; solid curve, sum of two Lorentzian functions centered at 1.1 and 3.05 THz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour plot of the maximum effective length L max for DAST using χ 111 OR or r 111 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contour plot of the maximum effective length L max for DAST using χ 111 OR or r 111 . The thick curve represents 0.5 mm , and the line spacing equals 0.1 mm throughout.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Contour plot of the maximum effective length L max for DAST using χ 122 OR or r 221 .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plot of the maximum effective length L max for DAST using χ 122 OR or r 221 . The thick curve represents 0.5 mm , and the line spacing equals 0.1 mm throughout.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Velocity-matched wavelengths as a function of propagation angle ϕ (see text for details). Solid curve, ν = 2.0 THz ; dotted curve, ν = 2.5 THz . Error bars are calculated with an uncertainty of the index difference Δ n of 0.03.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental setup for the generation of THz pulses by optical rectification and their detection by THz-induced lensing. EM, ellipsoidal mirror; IR block, a sheet of paper that blocks the pump beam and its second harmonic but that is transparent to THz radiation (indicated by a shade of gray).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical THz transient from DAST χ 111 OR at a wavelength of 1500 nm . Left y scale, modulation Δ I I in THz-induced lensing; i.e., the intensity in the center of the probe beam changed by up to 50%. Right y scale, electric field of the THz pulse. The oscillations for t > 0.5 ps are due to ambient water vapor absorption.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Solid curve, spectrum of the THz transient in Fig. 9. The numerous narrow absorption lines are from ambient water vapor (compare, e.g., Ref. [37]). The dashed curve represents the theoretical spectrum.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized THz spectra generated at different pump wavelengths. Solid curve, 1350 nm ; dashed curve, 1400 nm ; dotted curve, 1500 nm . Crystal thickness of 0.25 mm for generation and 0.69 mm for detection.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectra of THz pulses generated in a 0.69 mm thick DAST crystal. Pump light polarized along the crystal b axis. Solid curve, λ = 740 nm ; dashed curve, λ = 710 nm .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

THz pulses generated in DAST crystals with a thickness d of 0.16, 0.33, 0.40, and 0.60 mm (from bottom to top) with a laser wavelength of 1500 nm . The signals are vertically offset for clarity and shifted in time by n g d c to compensate for the different propagation times of the pump pulse.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Spectral amplitude of the THz waveforms in Fig. 13 for two different frequencies. The data were normalized such that the slope is equal to 1 mm 1 in the limit of zero thickness (dotted line). The other curves represent the function L gen ( d ) for the same frequencies. Filled circles and solid curve, 2.0 THz ; open squares and dashed curve, 3.4 THz .

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spectra of THz pulses generated and detected in DAST crystals with a thickness of 0.40 and 0.69 mm , normalized with the pump pulse energy; λ = 1300 nm . Pump pulse energies, from bottom to top: 32.7, 27.0, 18.4, 12.9, and 6.2 μ J . The traces are vertically offset for clarity. The dips in the spectra near 1.7, 2.2, and 2.7 THz are due to ambient water vapor.[37] The spectra were calculated from the first 4 ps of the THz pulse.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for the Refractive Index n 1 of DAST in the Harmonic-Oscillator Model ,

Tables Icon

Table 2 Largest Electro-Optic Coefficients r i j k and Nonlinear Susceptibilities, χ k i j OR of DAST a

Equations (45)

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D = ϵ 0 E + P L + P NL ,
P L ( ω ) = ϵ 0 χ ( ω ) E ( ω )
D ( ω ) = ϵ 0 ϵ ( ω ) E ( ω ) + P NL ( ω ) ,
j ( ω ) = σ ( ω ) E ( ω ) ,
Δ E ( r , ω ) [ E ( r , ω ) ] + ω 2 μ 0 ϵ 0 ϵ ( ω ) E ( r , ω ) i ω μ 0 σ ( ω ) E ( r , ω ) = ω 2 μ 0 P NL ( r , ω ) .
P NL ( t ) = ϵ 0 [ R 2 d t 1 d t 2 χ ( 2 ) ( t 1 , t 2 ) E ( t t 1 ) E ( t t 2 ) ] [ + R 3 d t 1 d t 2 d t 3 χ ( 3 ) ( t 1 , t 2 , t 3 ) E ( t t 1 ) E ( t t 2 ) E ( t t 3 ) + ] ,
P NL , i ( ω ) = ϵ 0 R d ω χ i j k ( 2 ) ( ω ; ω , ω ω ) E j ( ω ) E k ( ω ω ) .
E ( t ) = 1 2 [ E 0 ( t ) exp ( i ω o t ) + c.c. ] ,
E ( ω ) = 1 2 [ E 0 ( ω ω o ) + E 0 * ( ω + ω o ) ] ,
χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) χ ( 2 ) ( ω ; ω , ω ω ) , ω o ω ω o .
P OR ( ω ) = 1 2 ϵ 0 χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) ( E 0 E 0 * ) ( ω ) .
P OR ( ω ) = χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) n ( ω o ) c I ( ω ) .
I ( t , z ) = I 0 ( t z v g ) exp ( α o z ) ,
n g ( ω o ) = n ( ω o ) + ω o n ω ω o .
I ( ω , z ) = I 0 ( ω ) exp [ i ( ω n g c ) z ] exp ( α o z ) .
2 E ( ω ) z 2 + [ ω 2 n 2 ( ω ) c 2 i ω μ 0 σ ( ω ) ] E = ω 2 μ 0 χ OR ( ω , ω o ) n ( ω o ) c exp [ i ( ω n g c ) z ] exp ( α o z ) I 0 ( ω ) ,
α T ( ω ) = μ 0 c n ( ω ) σ ( ω ) .
E ( ω , z ) = μ 0 χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) ω I 0 ( ω ) n ( ω o ) { c ω [ α T ( ω ) 2 + α o ] + i [ n ( ω ) + n g ] } exp [ i ω n ( ω ) c z ] exp [ α T ( ω ) 2 z ] exp ( i ω n g c z ) exp ( α o z ) α T ( ω ) 2 α o + i ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] .
L gen ( ω , z ) = ( exp [ α T ( ω ) z ] + exp ( 2 α o z ) 2 exp { [ α T ( ω ) 2 + α o ] z } cos { ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] z } [ α T ( ω ) 2 α o ] 2 + ( ω c ) 2 [ n ( ω ) n g ] 2 ) 1 2 .
I 0 ( t ) = I m exp ( t 2 2 τ 2 ) I 0 ( ω ) = I m τ exp ( τ 2 ω 2 2 ) ,
I ( ρ , t ) = I c ( t ) exp [ ρ 2 2 s 2 ( z ) ] ,
E ( ρ , ζ ) = E 0 W 0 W ( ζ ) exp [ ρ 2 W 2 ( ζ ) ] ,
W ( ζ ) = W 0 1 + ζ 2 z 0 2 ( ω ) .
z 0 ( ω ) = ω 2 c W 0 2 = ω c s 2 .
E ( ω , l ) = 0 l E 0 ( ω ) z 1 1 + c 2 ( l z ) 2 ω 2 s 4 d z = E 0 ( ω ) z ω c s 2 arcsinh ( c l s 2 ω ) .
E ( ω , l ) E 0 ( ω ) z l ,
E 0 ( ω ) z = μ 0 χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) 2 n ( ω o ) n g I 0 ( ω ) ω .
E ( ω , l ) = μ 0 χ OR ( ω ; ω o ) 2 c n ( ω o ) n g s 2 I 0 ( ω ) ω 2 arcsinh ( c l s 2 ω ) .
I ( t , z ) = I i ( t z v g ) 1 + α 2 I i ( t z v g ) z ,
Δ I ( t , z ) = α 2 I 0 2 exp [ ( t z v g ) 2 τ 2 ] z α 2 2 I 0 3 exp [ 3 ( t z v g ) 2 2 τ 2 ] z 2 .
Δ ϕ ( t d ) = k o 0 L R Δ n ( z , t ) A [ t ( n g z c ) t d ] d t d z ,
Δ n ( z , t ) = n o 3 2 r E THz ( z , t ) ,
Δ ϕ ( ω ) = k o n o 3 2 r 0 L R 2 E THz ( z , t ) A [ t ( n g z c ) t d ] exp ( i ω t d ) d t d t d d z = k o n o 3 2 r A ( ω ) 0 L E THz ( z , ω ) exp ( i ω n g c z ) d z .
E THz ( ω , z ) = E i ( ω ) exp [ α ( ω ) 2 z ] exp [ i ω n ( ω ) c z ] ,
Δ ϕ ( ω ) = k o n o 3 2 r A ( ω ) 1 exp [ α ( ω ) 2 z ] exp { i ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] z } α ( ω ) 2 i ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] E i ( ω ) .
L det ( ω ) = ( exp [ α T ( ω ) z ] + 1 2 exp [ α T ( ω ) 2 z ] cos { ω c [ n ( ω ) n g ] z } [ α T ( ω ) 2 ] 2 + ( ω c ) 2 [ n ( ω ) n g ] 2 ) 1 2 ,
Δ ϕ ( ω ) = k o n o 3 2 r A ( ω ) L det ( ω ) E i ( ω ) .
l o = l c = π c ω [ n ( ω ) n g ] ( α o = α T = 0 ) ,
l o ( α T , l c ) = l c 2 α T ( { 1 + 2 α T 2 4 [ 1 + exp ( α T l c 2 ) ] ( π l c ) 2 α T 2 4 exp ( α T l c 2 ) 1 } 1 2 ) .
n ( ω ) = n + i = 1 , 2 a i ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) 2 + 4 γ i 2 ω 2 .
α ( ω ) = 2 K ω 2 i = 1 , 2 2 γ i a i ( ω i 2 ω 2 ) 2 + 4 γ i 2 ω 2 .
χ i j k OR ( ω ; ω o ) = 1 2 n j 2 ( ω o ) n k 2 ( ω o ) r j k i ( ω o ; ω ) ,
r ( ω ) = r a ( ω ) + r o ( ω ) + r e ( ω ) .
χ e f f OR ( ϕ ) = cos 3 ( ϕ ) χ 111 OR + sin ( ϕ ) sin ( 2 ϕ ) ( 1 2 χ 122 OR + χ 212 OR ) ,
1 n eff 2 ( ϕ ) = cos 2 ( ϕ ) n 1 2 + sin 2 ( ϕ ) n 2 2 .

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