Abstract

Whispering-gallery resonant laser emission is reported in CdSe-tagged polystyrene microcavities. A clear intensity threshold for laser emission is observed. Using a recently developed asymptotic expansion derived from Mie theory, we have theoretically identified the experimentally observed discrete resonant peaks and assigned them to different quantum states. In fluorescent carboxylate-modified ellipsoidal polystyrene microcavities, we have observed that whispering-gallery mode and directional laser emission can be excited simultaneously. To understand our experimental results, we extend the asymptotic expansion from spherical to ellipsoidal microcavities to explain the whispering-gallery mode behavior and develop a simple ray-optics model to interpret the directional emission. The obtained numerical data agree well with experimental observation.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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2003

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Whispering-gallery modes and resonances of an elliptic cavity," J. Phys. A 34, 1341-1362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Shima, R. Omori, and A. Suzuki, "High-Q concentrated directional emission from egg-shaped asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 26, 795-797 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacey and H. Wang, "Directional emission from whispering-gallery modes in deformed fused-silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 26, 1943-1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Exponentially improved asymptotic expansions for resonances of an elliptic cylinder," J. Phys. A 33, 3179-3208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, "Nonlinear whispering gallery modes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3803-3808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, "Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities," Nature 385, 45-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, "Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 21, 1609-1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, "CW nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440-2443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, and J. B. Gillespie, "Two-photon-pumped lasing in microdroplets," Opt. Lett. 17, 1435-1437 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 1982-1991 (1992).

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Lam, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, "Explicit asymptotic formulas for the positions, widths and strength of resonances in Mie scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1585-1592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

1988

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

1985

1984

1981

M. V. Berry, "Regularity and chaos in classical mechanics, illustrated by three deformations of a circular 'billard'," Eur. J. Phys. 2, 91-102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of optical resonaces of dielectric spheres by light scattering," Appl. Opt. 20, 1803-1814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1978

1977

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in radiation pressure on dielectric spheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1961

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, "Stimulated emission in to optical whispering modes of spheres," Phys. Rev. 124, 1807-1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1939

R. D. Richtmyer, "Dielectric resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 391-399 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Ancey, A.

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Whispering-gallery modes and resonances of an elliptic cavity," J. Phys. A 34, 1341-1362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Exponentially improved asymptotic expansions for resonances of an elliptic cylinder," J. Phys. A 33, 3179-3208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Baer, T.

Barber, P. W.

P. R. Conwell, P. W. Barber, and C. K. Rushforth, "Resonant spectra of dielectric spheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 1, 62-67 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

Bennett, H. S.

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, "Regularity and chaos in classical mechanics, illustrated by three deformations of a circular 'billard'," Eur. J. Phys. 2, 91-102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A.

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bond, W. L.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, "Stimulated emission in to optical whispering modes of spheres," Phys. Rev. 124, 1807-1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Byer, R. L.

Campillo, A. J.

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, "CW nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440-2443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, P. T. Leung, S. Y. Liu, and K. Young, "High-precision identification of morphology-dependent resonances in optical processes in microdroplets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1955-1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 1982-1991 (1992).

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. C. W.

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, "Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 21, 1609-1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Kwok, A. Serpenguzel, W. F. Hsieh, R. K. Chang, and J. B. Gillespie, "Two-photon-pumped lasing in microdroplets," Opt. Lett. 17, 1435-1437 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, "Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 21, 1609-1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ching, E. S. C.

E. S. C. Ching, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, in Optical Processes in Microcavities, R.K.Chang and A.J.Campillo, eds. (World Scientific1996).
[CrossRef]

Ching, S. C.

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Chýlek, P.

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Conwell, P. R.

Davidovich, L.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, "Nonlinear whispering gallery modes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3803-3808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Domokos, P.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorain, P. B.

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Ema, K.

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, P. T. Leung, S. Y. Liu, and K. Young, "High-precision identification of morphology-dependent resonances in optical processes in microdroplets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1955-1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 1982-1991 (1992).

Faist, J.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Folacci, A.

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Whispering-gallery modes and resonances of an elliptic cavity," J. Phys. A 34, 1341-1362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Exponentially improved asymptotic expansions for resonances of an elliptic cylinder," J. Phys. A 33, 3179-3208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, D. H.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, P.

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Whispering-gallery modes and resonances of an elliptic cavity," J. Phys. A 34, 1341-1362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Exponentially improved asymptotic expansions for resonances of an elliptic cylinder," J. Phys. A 33, 3179-3208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, C. G. B.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, "Stimulated emission in to optical whispering modes of spheres," Phys. Rev. 124, 1807-1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gonokami, M. K.

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Grossman, H. L.

Harayama, T.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, "Nonlinear whispering gallery modes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3803-3808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hare, J.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Hatta, M.

M. Hatta, H. Monjushiro, and H. Watarai, "Micro-particle sorting by Newton-ring device," Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 2004, 2772-2773.

Herz, E.

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. C.

Hsieh, W. F.

Huston, A. L.

Ikeda, K. S.

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, "Nonlinear whispering gallery modes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3803-3808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jarzembski, M.

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jia, R.

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. R.

Kaiser, W.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, "Stimulated emission in to optical whispering modes of spheres," Phys. Rev. 124, 1807-1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Kaye, G. W. C.

G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, eds., in Physical and Chemical Constants (Longmans, Green, 1957).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969).

Kruzelock, R. P.

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, A. S.

Laby, T. H.

G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, eds., in Physical and Chemical Constants (Longmans, Green, 1957).

Lacey, S.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey and H. Wang, "Directional emission from whispering-gallery modes in deformed fused-silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 26, 1943-1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H. M.

Lam, C. C.

Lefe-Seguin, V.

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

Levi, A. F.

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. B.

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H.-B.

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, "CW nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440-2443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, A. J. Campillo, P. T. Leung, S. Y. Liu, and K. Young, "High-precision identification of morphology-dependent resonances in optical processes in microdroplets," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1955-1968 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 1982-1991 (1992).

Liu, S. Y.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lonergan, M.

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, K. E.

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merritt, C. D.

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monjushiro, H.

M. Hatta, H. Monjushiro, and H. Watarai, "Micro-particle sorting by Newton-ring device," Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 2004, 2772-2773.

Narimanov, E. E.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöckel, J. U.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, "Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities," Nature 385, 45-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, "Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 21, 1609-1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omori, R.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R.

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Probert-Jones, J. R.

Protsenko, I.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. M.

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Richtmyer, R. D.

R. D. Richtmyer, "Dielectric resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 391-399 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Rosasco, G. J.

Rushforth, C. K.

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Serpenguzel, A.

Shima, K.

Silvo, D. L.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spillman, W. B.

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, V.

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stone, A. D.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, "Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities," Nature 385, 45-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, "Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities," Opt. Lett. 21, 1609-1611 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. VIII.

Striccoli, M.

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

Takeda, K.

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, P.

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Lacey and H. Wang, "Directional emission from whispering-gallery modes in deformed fused-silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 26, 1943-1945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watarai, H.

M. Hatta, H. Monjushiro, and H. Watarai, "Micro-particle sorting by Newton-ring device," Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 2004, 2772-2773.

Yasuda, H.

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

Zhang, Y.

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Jia, D. Jiang, P. Tan, and B. Sun, "Quantum dots in glass spherical microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 153-155 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. L. McCall, A. F. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, "Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289-291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, C. Gmachl, M. Striccoli, C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Silvo, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade disk lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2456-2458 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Eversole, H.-B. Lin, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-mode identification of fluorescence and lasing in dye-doped microdroplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 1982-1991 (1992).

P. Chýlek, A. Biswas, M. Jarzembski, V. Srivastava, and R. Pinnick, "Time-delay of stimulated Raman-scattering of micron-size droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1642-1644 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Cambridge)

M. Hatta, H. Monjushiro, and H. Watarai, "Micro-particle sorting by Newton-ring device," Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 2004, 2772-2773.

Electron. Lett.

L. Collot, V. Lefe-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very high-Q whispering-gallery mode resonances observed on fused-silica microspheres," Electron. Lett. 23, 327-334 (1993).

Eur. J. Phys.

M. V. Berry, "Regularity and chaos in classical mechanics, illustrated by three deformations of a circular 'billard'," Eur. J. Phys. 2, 91-102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. D. Richtmyer, "Dielectric resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 10, 391-399 (1939).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. A

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Exponentially improved asymptotic expansions for resonances of an elliptic cylinder," J. Phys. A 33, 3179-3208 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancey, A. Folacci, and P. Gabrielli, "Whispering-gallery modes and resonances of an elliptic cavity," J. Phys. A 34, 1341-1362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2

M. K. Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, and K. Ema, "Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microspheres," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 31, L99-L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, "Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities," Nature 385, 45-47 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

C. G. B. Garrett, W. Kaiser, and W. L. Bond, "Stimulated emission in to optical whispering modes of spheres," Phys. Rev. 124, 1807-1809 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

I. Protsenko, P. Domokos, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. Hare, J. M. Raimond, and L. Davidovich, "Quantum theory of a thresholdless laser," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1667-1682 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, "Very low threshold whispering-gallery mode microsphere laser," Phys. Rev. A 54, 1777-1780 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, C. D. Merritt, and A. J. Campillo, "Cavity-modified spontaneous-emission rates in liquid microdroplets," Phys. Rev. A 45, 6756-6760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

X. Fan, M. Lonergan, Y. Zhang, and H. Wang, "Enhanced spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in whispering gallery optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. B 64, 115310 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mekis, J. U. Nöckel, G. Chen, A. D. Stone, and R. K. Chang, "Ray chaos and Q spoiling in lasing droplets," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2682-2685 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, "CW nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440-2443 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Harayama, P. Davis, and K. S. Ikeda, "Nonlinear whispering gallery modes," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3803-3808 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, and R. K. Chang, "Enhancement of fluorescence induced by microstructure resonances of a dielectric fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075-1078 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacey, H. Wang, D. H. Foster, and J. U. Nöckel, "Directional tunneling escape from nearly spherical optical resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 033902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of resonances in radiation pressure on dielectric spheres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351-1354 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C

K. E. Meissner, E. Herz, R. P. Kruzelock, and W. B. Spillman, "Quantum dot-tagged microspheres for fluid-based DNA microarrays," Phys. Status Solidi C 0, 1355-1359 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. C. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, "High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators," Science 280, 1556-1564 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, 1969).

S. C. Hill and R. E. Benner, in Optical Effects Associated with Small Particles, P.W.Barber and R.K.Chang, eds. (World Scientific, 1988).

E. S. C. Ching, P. T. Leung, and K. Young, in Optical Processes in Microcavities, R.K.Chang and A.J.Campillo, eds. (World Scientific1996).
[CrossRef]

M.Abramowitz and I.A.Stegun, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions (National Bureau of Standards, 1972).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1941), Chap. VIII.

G. W. C. Kaye and T. H. Laby, eds., in Physical and Chemical Constants (Longmans, Green, 1957).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. Laser, Coherent Verdi-10 operating at 532 nm ; HW, half-wave plate at 532 nm ; P, polarizer; M, mirrors; BS, beam splitter; CCD, CCD camera (Olympus DP-12); OLs, objective lenses; XYZ, XYZ stage; Hg, Hg lamp; CL, collect lens; ST, spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic image of CdSe-tagged fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene microspheres with a diameter of 6 μ m .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of optically trapped CdSe-tagged polystyrene particles. Strong yellow light surrounding the particles can be seen. The light is attributed to WGMs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity dependence on excitation power of the light emission from a CdSe-tagged polystyrene microsphere with a diameter of 6 μ m . Note there is a clear threshold at 40 mW . After the threshold, the intensity increases much faster.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emission spectra from the CdSe-tagged polystyrene microsphere. (a) Excitation power = 106 mW . (b) Excitation power = 50 mW . (c) Excitation power = 30 mW . Note four peaks can be distinguished in the yellow range in (a) and (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Obtained results from fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene particles with a diameter of 9.14 μ m ( ± 0.71 μ m ) . (a) Microscopic image of a particle under illumination of the Hg lamp. (b) A particle is trapped by the laser beam and emits under the excitation of the same beam. Arrows indicate the polarization direction of the excitation laser beam. Note that in addition to the yellow light, the orange and red directional emission can be seen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detailed structures of the spectra. Upper curves emission spectrum while the particle is optically trapped; lower curve, solution fluorescence background without particles trapped. Note that 12 peaks can be distinguished. Peaks 9–12 are associated with four longitudinal modes of the directional laser emission. Other peaks distributing in the yellow range should be assigned to WGMs.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light emission intensity as a function of the excitation power of the light emission from a fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene particle. A clear threshold at 45 mW can be seen.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Two polystyrene particles are steadily trapped under a laser power of 30 mW . We can see that the two particles have elliptical deformation. A filter is used to block most of the laser light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stable resonant trajectory to establish the directional laser emission. The trajectory can exist for as long as several hours.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Experimental Peak Positions and Result of Theoretical Mode Indentification for the Spectrum (a) in Fig. 5

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Table 2 Measured Peak Position of Whispering-Gallery Modes and Results of Theoretical Mode Identification for Upper Spectrum in Fig. 7

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Table 3 Experimental and Theoretical Result of the Directional Laser Emission Peaks Shown in Fig. 7

Equations (9)

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2 π a l λ n s .
n s x l , i = ν + 2 1 3 α i ν 1 3 P ( n 2 1 ) 1 2 + ( 3 10 2 2 3 ) α i 2 ν 1 3 2 1 3 P ( n 2 2 P 2 3 ) ( n 2 1 ) 3 2 α i ν 2 3 + O ( ν 1 ) ,
( λ l , i ) 1 = 1 2 π n s a [ ν + 2 1 3 α i ν 1 3 P ( n 2 1 ) 1 2 + ( 3 10 2 2 3 ) α i 2 ν 1 3 2 1 3 P ( n 2 2 P 2 3 ) ( n 2 1 ) 3 2 α i ν 2 3 + O ( ν 1 ) ] ,
Δ λ l , i = λ l , i 2 2 π n s a { 1 + 2 1 3 3 α i ν 2 3 ( 2 2 3 10 ) α i 2 ν 4 3 [ 2 2 3 3 P ( n 2 2 P 2 3 ) ( n 2 1 ) 2 3 2 1 3 9 ] α i ν 5 3 + O ( ν 2 ) } .
( λ l , i ) 1 = 1 2 π n s c [ π 2 E ̃ ( ξ 0 ) ν + π 1 3 α i K ̃ ( ξ 0 ) 2 2 3 E ̃ 4 3 ( ξ 0 ) ( cosh ξ 0 sinh ξ 0 ) 1 3 ν 1 3 α i 2 Q 2 ( ξ 0 , α i ) 2 1 3 π 1 3 60 E ̃ 5 3 ( ξ 0 ) ( cosh ξ 0 sinh ξ 0 ) 5 3 ν 1 3 Q 3 ( ξ 0 , α i ) 8400 π E ̃ 2 ( ξ 0 ) ( cosh ξ 0 sinh ξ 0 ) 3 ν 1 + O ( ν 5 3 ) ] ,
K ( m ) = 0 π 2 ( 1 m sin 2 θ ) 1 2 d θ ,
E ( m ) = 0 π 2 ( 1 m sin 2 θ ) 1 2 d θ .
2 n s d = q λ ,
Δ λ = ( λ 2 2 n s d ) Δ q ,

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