Abstract

The polarization characteristics of diffracted beams from twisted nematic (TN) gratings are investigated. The TN grating is fabricated by exploiting the photoalignment effect in a dye-doped homogeneous liquid-crystal film. Experimental results indicate that the irradiation of an azo-dye-doped liquid-crystal film with appropriate light can induce dye adsorption on a glass substrate. The adsorbed dyes then reorient the liquid-crystal director perpendicular to the pump-beam polarization. The polarizations of the diffracted beams from such a TN grating are systematically studied. The experimental results correlate well with theory. Additionally, the TN grating can be used as a polarization beam splitter.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590-2594 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2005 (1)

2004 (1)

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590-2594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Davis, J. Adachi, C. R. Fernández-Pousa, and I. Moreno, "Polarization beam splitters using polarization diffraction gratings," Opt. Lett. 26, 587-589 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186-1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1981 (1)

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, "Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127-128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, J.

Biener, G.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bomzon, Z.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boswell, D.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K.-T.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, F.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186-1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1993).

Dorschner, T. A.

Fainman, Y.

Fedorenko, D.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Pousa, C. R.

Ford, J. E.

Francescangeli, O.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

Fu, T.-L.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590-2594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gu, C.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley InterScience, 1999).

Hasman, E.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, "Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127-128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1976).

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I.-C.

I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Khyzhnyak, A.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-W.

Kim, J.

Kleiner, V.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

Kuksenok, O. V.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lavkner, A. M.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590-2594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-D.

Margerum, J. D.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186-1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mo, T.-S.

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Polarization holographic grating based on azo-dye-doped polymer-ball-type polymer-dispersed liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2590-2594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Niv, A.

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ouskova, E.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1993).

Reshetnyak, V.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rester, D. P.

Reznikov, Y.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russo, G.

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186-1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sawchuk, A. A.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, "Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127-128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

Sharp, R. C.

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Soffer, B. H.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Su, L.

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanguay, A. R.

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Urguhart, K.

Vithana, H.

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voloshchenko, D.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1976).

Wu, S.-T.

I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

Wyrowski, F.

Xu, F.

Yeh, P.

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley InterScience, 1999).

Yu, C.-J.

Zeitner, U.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Schadt and W. Helfrich, "Voltage-dependent optical activity of a twisted nematic liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 127-128 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, P. J. Bos, H. Vithana, and D. L. Johnson, "An electro-optically controlled liquid crystal diffraction grating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2588-2590 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, "Diffraction gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals recorded by means of polarization holographic technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186-1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Y. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, "Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 34, 566-571 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

B. H. Soffer, J. D. Margerum, A. M. Lavkner, D. Boswell, A. R. Tanguay Jr., T. C. Strand, A. A. Sawchuk, and P. Chavel, "Variable grating mode liquid crystal device for optical processing and computing," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 70, 145-161 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Hasman, Z. Bomzon, A. Niv, G. Biener, and V. Kleiner, "Polarization beam-splitters and optical switches based on space-variant computer-generated subwavelength quasi-periodic structures," Opt. Commun. 209, 45-54 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. E (3)

E. Ouskova, D. Fedorenko, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Hidden photoalignment of liquid crystals in the isotropic phase," Phys. Rev. E 63, 021701 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Ouskova, Yu. Reznikov, S. V. Shiyanovskii, L. Su, J. L. West, O. V. Kuksenok, O. Francescangeli, and F. Simoni, "Photo-orientation of liquid crystals due to light-induced desorption and adsorption of dye molecules on an aligning surface," Phys. Rev. E 64, 051709 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C.-R. Lee, T.-L. Fu, K.-T. Cheng, T.-S. Mo, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, "Surface-assisted photoalignment in dye-doped liquid crystal films," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031704 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1976).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Oxford U. Press, 1993).

I.-C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1993).

P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley InterScience, 1999).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simple TN grating structure based on periodic twisted angle 1 ( θ ) and twisted angle 2 ( θ ) of the LC cell. Λ is the grating spacing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of twisted angle in a DDLC cell, caused by being irradiated by a linearly polarized DPSS laser with an intensity of 15 mW cm 2 , with irradiation for various time periods. The DDLC cell was initially homogeneously aligned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setups: (a) fabrication of a TN grating by irradiating a linearly polarized DPSS laser through a photomask onto a DDLC cell; (b) measurement of the diffraction characteristics of a fabricated TN grating using a He–Ne laser. NDF, neutral-density filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Micrograph of the TN grating fabricated with the polarization of the pump beam parallel to the rubbing direction, observed under a polarizing microscope under crossed polarizers. (b) Diffraction pattern of the TN grating of (a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the intensity and the analyzer angle at five pump-beam polarizations relative to the rubbing direction in the reference surface: (a) 0°, (b) 30°, (c) 30 ° , (d) 45°, and (e) 60° polarization. The angle is negative (positive) if the rotated angle from the rubbing direction to the pump-beam polarization is clockwise (counterclockwise). The upper and lower diagrams present the zeroth- and first-order diffractions of the gratings, respectively, and the dotted and dashed curves plot the experimental and simulation results, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the first-order diffracted intensity of the TN grating fabricated with 0° pump-beam polarization probed using the setup shown in Fig. 3b without an analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variations of the zeroth- and first-order intensities of a TN grating diffracted using a He–Ne laser under parallel polarizers with applied ac voltages. The TN grating is fabricated with 0° pump-beam polarization.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measurements of the diffracted beam intensities from the TN grating fabricated with 0° pump-beam polarization under an applied ac voltage ( 3 V ) . The dotted and dashed curves represent the experimental and simulation results, respectively.

Equations (8)

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[ A B C D ] = { [ [ a * b * b a ] × rect ( x Λ 4 Λ 2 ) ] + [ [ a * b * b a ] × rect ( x + Λ 4 Λ 2 ) ] } 1 Λ comb ( x Λ ) ,
a , a = { 1 ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 sin θ sin [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] + cos θ cos [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] } + i { u ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 cos θ sin [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] } ,
b , b = { 1 ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 cos θ sin [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] sin θ cos [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] } + i { u ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 sin θ sin [ ( 1 + u 2 ) 1 2 θ ] } ,
u = Γ 2 θ = π d λ θ Δ n = π d λ θ ( n e n o ) , comb ( x ) = n = δ ( x n ) .
[ A B C D ] = m = [ exp ( i m 2 π Λ x ) [ A m B m C m D m ] ] ,
[ A m B m C m D m ] = Λ 2 sin c ( m 2 ) × [ a * exp ( i m 2 π ) + a * exp ( i m 2 π ) b * exp ( i m 2 π ) + b * exp ( i m 2 π ) ( b ) exp ( i m 2 π ) + ( b ) exp ( i m 2 π ) a exp ( i m 2 π ) + a exp ( i m 2 π ) ] × comb ( m ) ,
[ E m x E m y ] = [ cos 2 ρ cos ρ sin ρ cos ρ sin ρ sin 2 ρ ] [ A m B m C m D m ] [ cos α sin α ] ,
I m = E m x 2 + E m y 2 = E m x E m x * + E m y E m y * .

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