Abstract

We obtained very bright light emission from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) by using the surface-plasmon (SP) coupling technique. 23-fold enhanced photoluminescence (PL) intensities and two-fold increased PL decay rates are observed when the QDs are located on evaporated gold films. This enhancement is not effective for CdSe cores with ZnS shells (ZnSCdSe). The reason for this difference can be explained by using the SP dispersion diagram and by considering the SP coupling mechanism. We discuss the inherent merits and demerits of this technique to increase the emission efficiency. This technique will enable high-speed and efficient light emission for optically as well as electrically pumped light emitters.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN-Based Light Emitting and Lasers (Springer, 1997).
  2. V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Ailvisatos, "Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354-357 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. L. Barnes, "Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2170-2182 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Jensen and A. Torabit, "Refractive index of hexagonal II-VI compounds CdSe, CdS, and CdSexS1−x," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 857-863 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1561 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

2005 (4)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

W. L. Barnes, "Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2170-2182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Ailvisatos, "Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1962 (1)

M. Hacskaylo and C. Feldman, "Dielectric anomaly in ZnS films," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3042-3045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Ailvisatos, A. P.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Ailvisatos, "Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atay, T.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

Bawendi, M. G.

B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Beinstingl, W.

A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Borodisky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruchez, M.

M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W.

W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, W. C. W.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Ailvisatos, "Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dabbousi, B. O.

B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN-Based Light Emitting and Lasers (Springer, 1997).

Feldman, C.

M. Hacskaylo and C. Feldman, "Dielectric anomaly in ZnS films," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3042-3045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, Sg.

K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gin, P.

M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Grudzinski, W.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, I.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gryczynski, Z.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hacskaylo, M.

M. Hacskaylo and C. Feldman, "Dielectric anomaly in ZnS films," J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3042-3045 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, M.

A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, B.

Jiang, W.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.-C.

K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Köck, A.

A. Köck, E. Gornik, M. Hauser, and W. Beinstingl, "Strongly directional emission from AlGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2327-2329 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kulakovich, O.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lakowicz, "Radiative decay engineering: biophysical and biomedical applications," Anal. Biochem. 298, 1-24 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-W.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

I. Gryczynski, J. Malicka, W. Jiang, H. Fischer, W. C. W. Chan, Z. Gryczynski, W. Grudzinski, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Surface-plasmon-coupled emission of quantum dots," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 1088-1093 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maskevich, S.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

I. Gontijo, M. Borodisky, E. Yablonvitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moronne, M.

M. Bruchez Jr., M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels," Science 281, 2013-2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabiev, I.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode: GaN-Based Light Emitting and Lasers (Springer, 1997).

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, T. D.

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

W. Chan and S. Nie, "Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection," Science 281, 2016-2018 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nurmikko, A. V.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, "Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1227-1561 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, H.-C. Ko, Y. Kawakami, and Sg. Fujita, "Time-space resolved photoluminescence from (Zn,Cd)Se-based quantum dots structures," J. Cryst. Growth 214/215, 639-645 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Onitsuka, O.

B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E.

E. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69, 681-681 (1946).

Rubner, M. F.

B. O. Dabbousi, M. G. Bawendi, O. Onitsuka, and M. F. Rubner, "Electroluminescence from CdSe quantum-dot/polymer composites," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3116-3118 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. D. Neal, K. Okamoto, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced emission from dye doped polymer layers," Opt. Express 13, 5522-5527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, "Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitters based on InGaN quantum wells," Nat. Mater. 3, 601-605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vuckovic, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1131-1144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlamp, M. C.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Ailvisatos, "Light-emitting diodes made from cadmium selenide nanocrystals and a semiconducting polymer," Nature 370, 354-357 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

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[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, C.-W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sample structures of (a) CdSe and (b) Cd Se Zn S nanocrystals on gold-coated quartz chips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL spectra for (a) CdSe and (b) Cd Se Zn S nanocrystals on gold and quartz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time profiles of integrated PL signal for (a) CdSe and (b) Cd Se Zn S nanocrystals on gold and quartz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependences of the PL decay rates for (a) CdSe and (b) Cd Se Zn S nanocrystals on gold and quartz. Dashed curves are PL spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Purcell enhancement factors obtained by the ratios of PL lifetimes plotted against wavelength. Solid and dashed curves are dispersion diagram of surface plasmon mode for Cd Se Au and Cd Se Au interface, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between internal quantum efficiency of emission ( η int * ) and Purcell factor ( F p ) with initial quantum efficiency ( η int 0 ) 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%, and 2%.

Equations (6)

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k = ω c ( ϵ 1 ϵ 2 ϵ 1 + ϵ 2 ) 1 2 ,
Z = c ϖ ( ϵ 2 ϵ 1 ϵ 1 2 ) 1 2 .
F p = k P L * k P L = k SP + k rad + k non k rad + k non .
η ext = C ext × η int = C ext k rad k rad + k non .
η int * = k SP + k rad k SP + k rad + k non .
F p = 1 η int 0 1 η int * .

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