Abstract

Copper nanoparticles were elaborated in an indium tin oxide matrix by ion implantation. The nonlinear refraction and absorption coefficients of the composite materials obtained were measured using the z-scan method with nanosecond pulses (τ=7ns) at the wavelength of 532nm. In addition to the conventional on-axis z-scan configuration, measurements were carried out in the off-axis scheme to get a better sensitivity. The mechanisms responsible for nonlinear refraction and absorption in these nanocomposite materials are discussed. By using the temporal trace of the signal in the off-axis configuration, we show the thermal lensing effect to be negligible as compared with pure electronic ones.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. de Nalda, R. del Coso, I. Roquejo-Isidro, J. Olivares, A. Suarez-Garcia, J. Solis, and S. N. Afonso, "Limits to the determination of the nonlinear refractive index by the Z-scan method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 289-296 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kyoung and M. Lee, "Z-scan study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2," Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 21, 26-28 (2000).
  9. A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. L. Stepanov and I. B. Khaibullin, "Fabrication of metal nanoparticles in sapphire by low-energy ion implantation," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 9, 109-129 (2005).
  15. H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Martinelli, L. Gomes, and R. J. Harowicz, "Measurement of refractive nonlinearities in GaAs above bandgap energy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6193-6196 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Rashidi-Huyeh and B. Palpant, "Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4475-4482 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Ehrenreich and H. R. Philipp, "Optical properties of Ag and Cu," Phys. Rev. 128, 1622-1629 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  33. N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

2005

A. L. Stepanov and I. B. Khaibullin, "Fabrication of metal nanoparticles in sapphire by low-energy ion implantation," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 9, 109-129 (2005).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Rashidi-Huyeh and B. Palpant, "Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4475-4482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. de Nalda, R. del Coso, I. Roquejo-Isidro, J. Olivares, A. Suarez-Garcia, J. Solis, and S. N. Afonso, "Limits to the determination of the nonlinear refractive index by the Z-scan method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 289-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, "Z-scan study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2," Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 21, 26-28 (2000).

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, L. Gomes, and R. J. Harowicz, "Measurement of refractive nonlinearities in GaAs above bandgap energy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6193-6196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1962

H. Ehrenreich and H. R. Philipp, "Optical properties of Ag and Cu," Phys. Rev. 128, 1622-1629 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, S. N.

Aliyu, Y. H.

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alves, E.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antanavicius, R.

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appleyard, S.

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. M.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K. S.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bremer, J.

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, C.

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buchal, Ch.

Bunce, R. W.

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Can, N.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruza, E.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chapple, P. B.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charron, E.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Zh.

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chew, C. H.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, R. C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Day, S.

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Nalda, R.

Debrus, S.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

del Coso, R.

Dhami, T. S.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diskett, D.

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ehrenreich, H.

H. Ehrenreich and H. R. Philipp, "Optical properties of Ag and Cu," Phys. Rev. 128, 1622-1629 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Falconieri, M.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. S.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, F.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gatteschi, D.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

Gonella, F.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Guo, S.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haglung, R. F.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamberg, I.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harowicz, R. J.

Hensley, D. K.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hjortsberg, A.

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hunderi, O.

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ila, D.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Januskevicius, R.

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamalov, Sh. R.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kek, Y. M.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khaibullin, I. B.

A. L. Stepanov and I. B. Khaibullin, "Fabrication of metal nanoparticles in sapphire by low-energy ion implantation," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 9, 109-129 (2005).

Khaibullin, R. I.

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kodirov, M. K.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kyoung, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, "Z-scan study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2," Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 21, 26-28 (2000).

Lafait, J.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laghate, M.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, "Z-scan study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2," Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 21, 26-28 (2000).

Liao, H. B.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marques, C.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

Mattei, G.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

May, M.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, F.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, C. S.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, D. V.

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mouketou-Missono, A.-S.

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Oh, P. S.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Osborne, D. H.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palpant, B.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rashidi-Huyeh and B. Palpant, "Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4475-4482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Petford-Long, A. K.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. R.

H. Ehrenreich and H. R. Philipp, "Optical properties of Ag and Cu," Phys. Rev. 128, 1622-1629 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pickford, R.

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinçon, N.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Piovesan, M.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poker, D. B.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polloni, R.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prot, D.

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Rashidi-Huyeh, M.

M. Rashidi-Huyeh and B. Palpant, "Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4475-4482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Roquejo-Isidro, I.

Rustagi, K. S.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyanskiy, A. I.

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryasnyansky, A. I.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salehi, A.

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, G.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sangregorio, C.

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, S.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sella, C.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Serna, R.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. C.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

R. de Nalda, R. del Coso, I. Roquejo-Isidro, J. Olivares, A. Suarez-Garcia, J. Solis, and S. N. Afonso, "Limits to the determination of the nonlinear refractive index by the Z-scan method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 289-296 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Staromlynska, J.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. L. Stepanov and I. B. Khaibullin, "Fabrication of metal nanoparticles in sapphire by low-energy ion implantation," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 9, 109-129 (2005).

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suarez-Garcia, A.

Tang, S. H.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J.-G.

J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Usmanov, T.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uysal, S.

A. I. Ryasnyansky, B. Palpant, S. Debrus, R. A. Ganeev, A. L. Stepanov, N. Can, Ch. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO doped with copper nanoparticles in the pico- and nanosecond pulse laser field," Appl. Opt. 44, 2839-2845 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaicikauskas, V.

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Venturini, J.

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. K.

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willis, M.

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

Xiao, R. F.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, H. Wang, K. S. Wong, and G. K. L. Wong, "Origin of third-order optical nonlinearity in Au:SiO2 composite films on femtosecond and picosecond time scales," Opt. Lett. 23, 388-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F. Q.

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zang, W.-P.

J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, "Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass," Appl. Phys. B 66, 517-521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, J. S. Fu, and G. K. L. Wong, "Large third-order nonlinear susceptibility of Au:Al2O3 composite films near the resonant frequency," Appl. Phys. B 65, 673-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. V. Petrov, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Reflection Z-scan technique for measurements of optical properties of surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1067-1069 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. Granqvist, "High quality transparent heat reflectors of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362-364 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araujo, "Measurements of nondegenerate optical nonlinearity using a two-color single beam method," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2666-2668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, F. Mazzoldi, D. Gatteschi, C. Sangregorio, M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, and G. Battaglin, "Cobalt nanoclusters in silica glass: nonlinear-optical and magnetic properties," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1176-1178 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, "Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288-290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Korean Chem. Soc.

M. Kyoung and M. Lee, "Z-scan study of the third-order optical nonlinearity of Au nanoparticles embedded in TiO2," Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 21, 26-28 (2000).

Eur. Phys. J. D

N. Pinçon, B. Palpant, D. Prot, E. Charron, and S. Debrus, "Third-order nonlinear optical response of Au:SiO2 thin films: influence of gold nanoparticle concentration and morphologic parameters," Eur. Phys. J. D 19, 395-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Rashidi-Huyeh and B. Palpant, "Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 4475-4482 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Debrus, J. Lafait, M. May, N. Pinçon, D. Prot, C. Sella, and J. Venturini, "Z-scan determination of the third-order optical nonlinearity of gold:silica nanocomposites," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 4469-4475 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, G. Yang, Zh. Chen, Y. Zhou, H. Lu, and G. Yang, "Iron nanoparticles in amorphous BaTiO3 thin films with large third-order optical nonlinearities," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7242-7245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

S. Appleyard, S. Day, R. Pickford, and M. Willis, "Organic electroluminescent devices: enhanced carrier injection using SAM derivatized ITO electrodes," J. Mater. Chem. 10, 169-174 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.

P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and J. A. Hermann, "Single-beam Z-scan: measurement techniques and analysis," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 6, 251-293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, Sh. R. Kamalov, M. K. Kodirov, and T. Usmanov, "Nonlinear susceptibilities, absorption coefficients and refractive indices of colloidal metals," J. Phys. D 34, 1602-1611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

H. H. Huang, F. Q. Yan, Y. M. Kek, C. H. Chew, G. Q. Xu, W. Ji, P. S. Oh, and S. H. Tang, "Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of copper nanoparticles," Langmuir 13, 172-175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

D. Ila, E. K. Williams, S. Sarkisov, C. C. Smith, D. B. Poker, and D. K. Hensley, "Formation of metallic nanoclusters in silica by ion implantation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 289-293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. S. Mehendale, S. R. Mishra, K. S. Bindra, M. Laghate, T. S. Dhami, and K. S. Rustagi, "Nonlinear refraction in aqueous colloidal gold," Opt. Commun. 133, 273-276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-G. Tian, W.-P. Zang, and G. Zhang, "Two modified Z-scan methods for determination of nonlinear-optical index with enhanced sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 107, 415-419 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, S. Guo, H. Wang, and L. Hou, "Theoretical study on the closed aperture Z-scan curves in the materials with nonlinear refraction and strong nonlinear absorption," Opt. Commun. 197, 431-437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, C. Marques, R. C. da Silva, and E. Alves, "Application of RZ-scan technique for investigation of nonlinear-optical characteristics of sapphire doped with Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles," Opt. Commun. 253, 205-213 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction of silicate glasses doped with silver nanoparticles at 532 nm," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 949-960 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

H. Ehrenreich and H. R. Philipp, "Optical properties of Ag and Cu," Phys. Rev. 128, 1622-1629 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyansky, A. L. Stepanov, and T. Usmanov, "Saturated absorption and reverse saturated absorption of Cu:SiO2 at lambda=532 nm," Phys. Status Solidi B 241, R1-R4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci.

A. L. Stepanov and I. B. Khaibullin, "Fabrication of metal nanoparticles in sapphire by low-energy ion implantation," Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 9, 109-129 (2005).

Tech. Phys. Lett.

A. L. Stepanov, R. I. Khaibullin, N. Can, R. A. Ganeev, A. I. Ryasnyanskiy, C. Buchal, and S. Uysal, "Application of ion implantation method for synthesis of copper nanoparticles in zinc oxide for creation of new nonlinear-optical materials," Tech. Phys. Lett. 30, 8-16 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

V. Vaicikauskas, J. Bremer, O. Hunderi, R. Antanavicius, and R. Januskevicius, "Optical constant of indium tin oxide films as determined by a surface plasmon phase method," Thin Solid Films 411, 262-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Morgan, A. Salehi, Y. H. Aliyu, R. W. Bunce, and D. Diskett, "Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers," Thin Solid Films 258, 283-285 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglung Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, "Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films," Thin Solid Films 318, 96-99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Palpant, D. Prot, A.-S. Mouketou-Missono, M. Rashidi-Huyeh, C. Sella, and S. Debrus, "Evidence for electron thermal effect in the third-order nonlinear optical response of matrix-embedded gold nanoparticles," in Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties, N.J.Halas, ed. Proc. SPIE 5221, 14-23 (2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the experimental setup in the off-axis z-scan configuration. L, focusing lens; S, sample; A, aperture; PD, photodetector. The arrow points in the direction of the laser beam propagation. The labels indicate the position of the beam center (0), beam edge without nonlinear refraction (1), beam edge with self-defocusing (2), and beam edge with self-focusing (3) in the aperture plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmittance spectra of the glass substrate, nonirradiated glass with an ITO layer, and implanted Cu:ITO with doses D = 5.0 × 10 16   ion   cm 2 (sample 1) and D = 7.5 × 10 16   ion   cm 2 (sample 2). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band stemming from the presence of Cu nanoparticles is shown by an arrow. The dashed vertical line indicates the wavelength used for the investigations of nonlinear optical properties ( 532 nm ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

z-scan profiles of the normalized transmittance measured for Cu:ITO samples in the conventional on-axis closed-aperture z-scan scheme. 1, sample 1; 2, sample 2; 3, pure ITO. Solid curves are theoretical fits to the experimental data. z 1 and z 2 denote the valley and peak positions, respectively, for sample 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized transmittance z dependence for (a) sample 1 and (b) sample 2 measured in the off-axis closed-aperture z-scan scheme. z 1 and z 2 denote the peak and valley positions, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profiles of the pulses transmitted through the off-axis aperture in the setup optical arms with (curve 1, sample arm) and without (curve 2, reference arm) a sample. The photodetectors used are fast photodiodes (response time less than 500 ps ). Curve 2 is proportional to the incident pulse on the sample. (a) Sample 1, (b) sample 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized transmittance z dependence measured in the open-aperture aperture z-scan scheme. 1, sample 1; 2, sample 2; 3, pure ITO. Solid curves, theoretical fits to the experimental data.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nonlinear Optical Characteristics of the Cu:ITO Composite Materials a

Metrics