Abstract

We present a model for a broadband terahertz (THz) system that employs electro-optic (EO) polymer films for THz generation via optical rectification and THz detection using EO sampling. In this model, we take the laser spectral bandwidth, pulse distortion, and the material properties of the EO medium into consideration, at both the generation and detection sites, and investigate the roles they play in affecting the performance of the THz system. This model provides us with a guide to select suitable EO materials and proper light sources for bright, broadband THz systems.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Far infrared, THz time-domain spectroscopy of flames," Opt. Lett. 20, 1646-1648 (1995).
  2. D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
  3. G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).
  4. Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).
  6. A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
  7. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
  8. C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).
  9. C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).
  10. A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).
  11. A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films," Opt. Lett. 27, 55-57 (2002).
  12. A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Efficient electro-optic polymers for THz systems," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8515-8522 (2004).
  13. A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).
  14. H. Cao, T. F. Heinz, and A. Nahata, "Electro-optic detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses by use of poled polymers," Opt. Lett. 27, 775-777 (2002).
  15. X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. H. Han and J. W. Wu, "Single-beam polarization interferometry measurement of the linear electro-optic effect in poled polymer films with a reflection configuration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1131-1137 (1997).
  17. P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313-317 (2001).
  18. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
  19. J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).
  20. A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.
  21. D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.
  22. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling wave electro-optic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).
  23. G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).
  24. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
  25. J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
  26. S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).
  27. D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).
  28. A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
  29. N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, "Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714-1718 (2005).
  30. Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
  31. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), pp. 36-37.
  32. L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 409-415 (1999).
  33. F. Salin and A. Brun, "Dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses using high-index prisms," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4736-4739 (1987).
  34. K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).

2005 (3)

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, "Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714-1718 (2005).

2004 (5)

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Efficient electro-optic polymers for THz systems," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8515-8522 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

P. C. M. Planken, H.-K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and T. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313-317 (2001).

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

1999 (3)

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Highly precise determination of optical constants and sample thickness in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 38, 409-415 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling wave electro-optic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

1995 (3)

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Far infrared, THz time-domain spectroscopy of flames," Opt. Lett. 20, 1646-1648 (1995).

1994 (2)

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, "Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206-2215 (1994).

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

1992 (1)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

1989 (1)

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).

1988 (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).

1987 (1)

F. Salin and A. Brun, "Dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses using high-index prisms," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4736-4739 (1987).

Alexander, M.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Auston, D.

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

Auston, D. H.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).

Backus, S.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

Bakker, H. J.

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Berry, E.

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

Bliss, D.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), pp. 36-37.

Brun, A.

F. Salin and A. Brun, "Dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses using high-index prisms," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4736-4739 (1987).

Buijserd, A. N.

Cao, H.

Chamberlain, J. M.

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

Chen, B.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Cheville, R. A.

Coutaz, J.-L.

Dalton, L.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Dalton, L. R.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Davies, A. G.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delong, K. W.

Durfee, C. G.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

Duvillaret, L.

Fattinger, C.

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).

Faure, J.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

Fitzgerald, A. J.

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

Garet, F.

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, "Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1204-1212 (1999).

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, "Far infrared, THz time-domain spectroscopy of flames," Opt. Lett. 20, 1646-1648 (1995).

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).

Haller, M.

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Han, S. H.

Hau, S.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Hayden, L. M.

X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Efficient electro-optic polymers for THz systems," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8515-8522 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films," Opt. Lett. 27, 55-57 (2002).

Heinz, T. F.

H. Cao, T. F. Heinz, and A. Nahata, "Electro-optic detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses by use of poled polymers," Opt. Lett. 27, 775-777 (2002).

A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).

Herman, W.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Herman, W. N.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Huber, R.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

Hunter, J.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

Jang, S.-H.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Jen, A.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Jen, A. K. Y.

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Jeon, T.-I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

Jin, Y.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Kaindl, R. A.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

Kang, J. W.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Kang, J.-W.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Kapteyn, H.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

Kim, T.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Kim, T. D.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Kim, T.-D.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Kubler, C.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

Larkin, J.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Leahy, M. R.

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

Lee, C. H.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Leemans, W. P.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

Lindahl, E.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).

Liu, S.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Luo, J.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Luo, J. D.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Ma, H.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Ma, X. F.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

Mittleman, D.

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

Murnane, M.

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

Nahata, A.

H. Cao, T. F. Heinz, and A. Nahata, "Electro-optic detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses by use of poled polymers," Opt. Lett. 27, 775-777 (2002).

A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

Nienhuys, H.-K.

Nuss, M.

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

Nuss, M. C.

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).

Park, D.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

Park, D. H.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

Planken, P. C. M.

Rice, A.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Salin, F.

F. Salin and A. Brun, "Dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses using high-index prisms," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4736-4739 (1987).

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Sinyukov, A. M.

X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Efficient electro-optic polymers for THz systems," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8515-8522 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Generation and detection of terahertz radiation with multilayered electro-optic polymer films," Opt. Lett. 27, 55-57 (2002).

Smye, S. W.

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Tian, Y.

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

Trebino, R.

Tubel, S.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

Upadhya, P. C.

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

van Tilborg, J.

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

Weling, A.

A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).

Wenckebach, T.

White, W. E.

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

Wu, J. W.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling wave electro-optic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

Zhang, X. C.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).

Zhang, X.-C.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling wave electro-optic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X.-C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz optical rectification from < 110 > zinc-blende crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).

C. Fattinger and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490-492 (1989).

C. Kubler, R. Huber, S. Tubel, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband detection of multiterahertz field transients with GaSe electro-optic sensors: approaching the near infrared," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3360-3362 (2004).

A. Nahata, D. Auston, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, "Generation of terahertz radiation from a poled polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1358-1360 (1995).

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1999).

Y. C. Shen, P. C. Upadhya, E. Lindahl, and A. G. Davies, "Observation of far-infrared emission from excited cytosine molecules," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 011105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sinyukov, M. R. Leahy, L. M. Hayden, M. Haller, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Resonance enhanced THz generation in electro-optic polymers near the absorption maximum," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5827-5829 (2004).

X. Zheng, A. M. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).

A. Nahata, A. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X. C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Auston and M. C. Nuss, "Electro-optical generation and detection of femtosecond electrical transients," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 184-197 (1988).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Design and characterization of traveling wave electro-optic terahertz sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 693-700 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Salin and A. Brun, "Dispersion compensation for femtosecond pulses using high-index prisms," J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4736-4739 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

J. Luo, M. Haller, H. Ma, S. Liu, T.-D. Kim, Y. Tian, B. Chen, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nanoscale architectural control and macromolecular engineering of nonlinear optical dendrimers and polymers for electro-optics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8523-8530 (2004).

A. M. Sinyukov and L. M. Hayden, "Efficient electro-optic polymers for THz systems," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 8515-8522 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Faure, J. van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling laser-based table-top THz sources: optical rectification, propagation and electro-optic sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. W. Smye, J. M. Chamberlain, A. J. Fitzgerald, and E. Berry, "The interaction between terahertz radiation and biological tissue," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, R101-R112 (2001).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, III, M. Murnane, and H. Kapteyn, "High power ultrafast lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1207-1223 (1998).

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-volt) half wave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).

Other (3)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003), pp. 36-37.

A. Jen, J. Luo, T. Kim, B. Chen, S. Hau, L. Dalton, J.-W. Kang, D. Park, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through supermolecular self-assembly," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD1.

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, W. N. Herman, J. W. Kang, J. D. Luo, T. D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, "Nonlinear ellipsometric analysis of the electro-optic effect in poled organic glasses," in Frontier in Optics 2005/Laser Science XXI (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper STuD4.

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