Abstract

We present a new technique for high-resolution pulsed spectroscopy that employs optical heterodyne detection to determine the instantaneous frequency of individual optical pulses, together with a frequency-binning method to generate high-precision spectra. We further demonstrate that active tuning of the light source is not necessary if the inherent frequency jitter of the source spans the spectral region of interest. This heterodyne-assisted approach to coherent pulsed spectroscopy (CHAPS) is applied in real time by using output from a pulsed, injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator–amplifier (OPO–OPA) system, the optical bandwidth of which is characterized via two-photon excitation of the 6S8S transition in cesium. The resulting sub-Doppler measurements demonstrate the utility of CHAPS as a high-resolution spectroscopic technique and confirm that the pulsed OPO–OPA system operates very close to the Fourier-transform limit.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, "Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231-241 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, "Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402-2411 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Gangopadhyay, "Optical phase distortions in nanosecond laser pulses and their effects on high-resolution spectroscopy," Ph.D. dissertation (U. of Delaware, 1995).
  5. I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).
  6. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 1248-1250 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577-1585 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Transition from single-mode to multimode operation of an injection-seeded pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 12, 5655-5660 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Kono, K. G. H. Baldwin, Y. He, R. T. White, and B. J. Orr, "Heterodyne-assisted pulsed spectroscopy with a nearly Fourier-transform limited, injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 3413-3415 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. T. White, "Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear-optical devices," Ph.D. thesis (Macquarie U., 2004).
  19. J. Marek, "Radiative lifetime of the 8S, 9S and 7D levels of Cs I," Phys. Lett. 60A, 190-192 (1977), and references therein.
  20. D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

J. Marek, "Radiative lifetime of the 8S, 9S and 7D levels of Cs I," Phys. Lett. 60A, 190-192 (1977), and references therein.

Arnett, K.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babychev, V.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, A.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

M. Kono, K. G. H. Baldwin, Y. He, R. T. White, and B. J. Orr, "Heterodyne-assisted pulsed spectroscopy with a nearly Fourier-transform limited, injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 3413-3415 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 1. Optical-heterodyne chirp analysis techniques," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1577-1585 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Control of frequency chirp in nanosecond-pulsed laser spectroscopy. 2. A long-pulse optical parametric oscillator for narrow optical bandwidth," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1586-1594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Transition from single-mode to multimode operation of an injection-seeded pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Opt. Express 12, 5655-5660 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. White, Y. He, B. J. Orr, M. Kono, and K. G. H. Baldwin, "Pulsed injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator with low frequency chirp for high-resolution spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 28, 1248-1250 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, S. D.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. H.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danzmann, K.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayan, B.

B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, D. S.

C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, "Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231-241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, "Phase dynamics in nanosecond pulsed dye laser amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2402-2411 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fee, M. S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer von Weikersthal, B.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

Friesem, A. A.

B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrysch, M.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

Gangopadhyay, S.

Hagel, C.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, M. W.

C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, Y.

Hogervorst, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jozefowski, L.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jungmann, K.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

Kono, M.

Lucatorto, T. B.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marek, J.

J. Marek, "Radiative lifetime of the 8S, 9S and 7D levels of Cs I," Phys. Lett. 60A, 190-192 (1977), and references therein.

McIlrath, T. J.

S. D. Bergeson, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, T. J. McIlrath, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet: helium 1S1-2S1 transition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1599-1606 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Melikechi, N.

Nesi, C.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O'Brian, T. R.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Onae, A.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B. J.

Pe'er, A.

B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhard, I.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

Rolston, S. L.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schwob, C.

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, K.

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vassen, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, N.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, R. T.

zu Pulitz, G.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. Fischer von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Pulitz, "Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers," Appl. Phys. B Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 467-472 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

K. Sasaki, K. Sugiyama, V. Babychev, and A. Onae, "Two-photon spectroscopy of the 6S-8S transitions in cesium using an extended-cavity diode laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 39, 5310-5311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Hagel, C. Nesi, L. Jozefowski, C. Schwob, F. Nez, and F. Biraben, "Accurate measurement of the frequency of the 6S-8S two-photon transitions in cesium," Opt. Commun. 160, 1-4 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Marek, "Radiative lifetime of the 8S, 9S and 7D levels of Cs I," Phys. Lett. 60A, 190-192 (1977), and references therein.

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. S. Elliott, M. W. Hamilton, K. Arnett, and S. J. Smith, "Correlation effects of a phase diffusing field on two-photon absorption," Phys. Rev. A 32, 887-895 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Lamb shift measurement in the 1S1 ground state of helium," Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866-1884 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, "Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911-4924 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 1S1-2S1 transition," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475-3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Chen, D. S. Elliott, and M. W. Hamilton, "Two-photon absorption from the real Gaussian field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3531-3534 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Dayan, A. Pe'er, A. A. Friesem, and Y. Silberberg, "Two photon absorption and coherent control with broadband down-converted light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023005, 1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, "Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 1S1-2P1 transition isotope shift," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216-1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O'Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, "Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED," Phys. Scr. T83, 76-82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Gangopadhyay, "Optical phase distortions in nanosecond laser pulses and their effects on high-resolution spectroscopy," Ph.D. dissertation (U. of Delaware, 1995).

R. T. White, "Quasi-phase-matched nonlinear-optical devices," Ph.D. thesis (Macquarie U., 2004).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Logarithm of the cw Cs TPE fluorescence signal as a function of Ti:S laser frequency, showing the F = 3 and F = 4 hyperfine components of the 6 S 8 S transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sub-Doppler F = 3 peak in the 6 S 8 S cw TPE spectrum of Cs vapor, with a Voigt-profile fit ( 2.2 MHz FWHM).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Typical OHD beat waveform for a negatively chirped OPO pulse. (b) Reconstructed beat component E b (real part only) derived by the FT method. (c) Real part of E b 2 , with its envelope E 0 2 as a solid curve. (d) Instantaneous frequency f inst derived from E b by the FT method, with the solid curve indicating the FWHM region of the reconstructed pulse profile, wherein the total chirp (linear fit) is 9.1 ± 1.3 MHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FT power spectrum ( 29.2 MHz FWHM) of the negatively chirped reconstructed beat component E b shown in Fig. 3b. The central beat frequency ( ν b = 722.3 MHz ) corresponds to the peak of the FT power spectrum (normalized to 1.0).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Central-frequency binned data (1104 shots) for a full OPA with positive chirp. (a) Histogram of the number of pulses, with a Lorentzian fit (solid curve, 50 MHz 1 σ width) and average central beat frequency 715 MHz . (b) OPA pulse energies (arbitrary units). (c) FWHM duration Δ t of the temporal power profile, with an average of 14.2 ± 2.2 ns . (d) Total chirp (linear fit) over the FWHM region, with an average chirp of 7.0 ± 7.0 MHz . (e) Cs TPE fluorescence spectrum, showing binned individual pulse values (filled circles), the average value for each bin (open circles), and a two-component Gaussian fit (solid curve). The FWHM linewidth Δ ν b and fitting error for the sub-Doppler peak are equal to 27.4 ± 0.4 MHz .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As for Fig. 5, but with a negative chirp (878 shots). (a) Histogram with a Lorentzian fit and an average central beat frequency 751 ± 47 MHz . (b) OPA pulse energies. (c) FWHM Δ t with an average of 14.5 ± 2.1 ns . (d) Total chirp, with an average of 6.9 ± 7.6 MHz . (e) Cs TPE fluorescence spectrum with FWHM linewidth Δ ν b for the sub-Doppler peak equal to 27.1 ± 0.3 MHz .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fluorescence-detected Cs TPE FWHM linewidth 2 Δ ν b plotted against the average of the total chirp over the FWHM temporal profile. Horizontal and vertical error bars indicate the 1 σ standard deviation of the chirp, and the fitting error of 2 Δ ν b , respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cs TPE FWHM linewidth 2 Δ ν b for zero-chirp OPO–OPA operating conditions plotted against the averaged OPO–OPA pulse duration Δ t (lower abscissa). Triangle, OPO only; square, OPA/2; circle, full OPA. The upper abscissa shows the corresponding signal-pulse energies.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

FT power spectra for the negatively chirped data shown in Fig. 3 (normalized to 1.0). The solid curve is for the squared reconstructed beat component E b 2 as in Fig. 3c ( 35.5 MHz FWHM, upper abscissa). The dashed curve is for the reconstructed pulse power temporal profile E 0 2 ( 33.5 MHz FWHM, lower abscissa, taking the central TPE beat frequency 2 ν b as origin).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

FWHM linewidth 2 Δ ν b of Cs TPE fluorescence plotted against the FWHM of the average of FT power spectra calculated from the reconstructed pulse-power temporal profile E 0 2 (filled symbols) and from the square of the reconstructed beat component E b 2 (open symbols). Triangles, OPO only; square, OPA/2; circles, full OPA. Zero-chirp OPO–OPA settings are marked with arrows.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Full OPA with zero chirp (1023 shots). (a) Three-dimensional plot of the average peak TPE fluorescence spectra showing the signal level (lightest shades, highest intensity; darkest shades, lowest intensity) at the indicated central beat frequency ν b , as a function of pulse FWHM Δ t (units of 0.2 ns , vertical axis); (b) Spectrum showing individual data point fluorescence values for Δ t > 16 ns . Solid curve is a Gaussian fit (FWHM 26.1 ± 0.4 MHz ).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

As for Fig. 11a (full OPA, zero chirp) except that the ordinate is now the total chirp over the FWHM temporal profile. The average chirp is 0.1 ± 5.5 MHz .

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Peak position of the Cs TPE fluorescence measured using (a) the central (peak) beat frequency ν b and (b) the mean beat frequency ν ¯ b , plotted against the averaged frequency difference ν b ν ¯ b . Triangles, OPO only; square, OPA/2; circles, full OPA. Left-most filled symbols, negative chirp; open symbols, zero chirp; right-most filled symbols, positive chirp.

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