Abstract

We demonstrate broadband laser cooling of atomic ions in an rf trap using ultrafast pulses from a mode-locked laser. The temperature of a single ion is measured by observing the size of a time-averaged image of the ion in the known harmonic trap potential. Although the lowest observed temperature was only about 1K, this method efficiently cools very hot atoms and can sufficiently localize trapped atoms to produce near diffraction-limited atomic images.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Hansch and A. Schawlow, "Cooling of gases by laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 13, 68-71 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, "Proposed 1014 delta nu/nu laser fluorescence spectroscopy on Tl+ mono-ion oscillator," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 657 (1975).
  3. J. Hoffnalge, "Proposal for continuous white-light cooling of an atomic beam," Opt. Lett. 13, 102-104 (1988).
  4. M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Watanabe, R. Omukai, U. Tanaka, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, "Velocity control of an Yb beam by a frequency-doubled mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2377-2381 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, "Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L.-M. Duan and R. Raussendorf, "Efficient quantum computation with probabilistic quantum gates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. The initial narrowband laser cooling is necessary only for technical reasons and does not affect the results of the pulsed-laser temperature measurement. Once the narrowband laser is turned off, the ion quickly reaches thermal equilibrium that depends only on the pulsed laser properties.
  18. D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Here, we present the analyzed temperature data for radial direction in the trap only [vertical in Fig. ]. In the axial direction [horizontal in Fig. ], the observed temperature is about 5 times lower. This suggests that our simple theoretical model does not fully describe the cooling mechanism.
  20. H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer, 1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. J. Wineland and W. M. Itano, "Radiation-pressure cooling of bound resonant absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521-1540 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Rosen and C. Zener, "Double Stern-Gerlach experiment and related collision phenomena," Phys. Rev. A 40, 502-507 (1932).
  26. D. Kielpinski, "Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains," arXiv:quant-ph/0306099 (2003).

2006

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L.-M. Duan and R. Raussendorf, "Efficient quantum computation with probabilistic quantum gates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, "Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, R. Omukai, U. Tanaka, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, "Velocity control of an Yb beam by a frequency-doubled mode-locked laser," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2377-2381 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

1982

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. J. Wineland and W. M. Itano, "Radiation-pressure cooling of bound resonant absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521-1540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

T. Hansch and A. Schawlow, "Cooling of gases by laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 13, 68-71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, "Proposed 1014 delta nu/nu laser fluorescence spectroscopy on Tl+ mono-ion oscillator," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 657 (1975).

1932

N. Rosen and C. Zener, "Double Stern-Gerlach experiment and related collision phenomena," Phys. Rev. A 40, 502-507 (1932).

Atutov, S. N.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berkeland, D. J.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, B. B.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, I.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blümel, R.

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabrese, R.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dehmelt, H.

D. J. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, "Proposed 1014 delta nu/nu laser fluorescence spectroscopy on Tl+ mono-ion oscillator," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 657 (1975).

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan and R. Raussendorf, "Efficient quantum computation with probabilistic quantum gates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaubatz, U.

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gidley, D. W.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goepfert, A.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guidi, V.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T.

T. Hansch and A. Schawlow, "Cooling of gases by laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 13, 68-71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haubrich, D.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

Hoffnalge, J.

Horn, A.

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imajo, H.

Irvine, W. T. M.

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, "Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland and W. M. Itano, "Radiation-pressure cooling of bound resonant absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521-1540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kappler, C.

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, H. M.

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kersebom, T.

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kielpinski, D.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Kielpinski, "Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains," arXiv:quant-ph/0306099 (2003).

King, B. E.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohn, R. N.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, I.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenisa, P.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lison, F.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Littler, I. C. M.

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Luger, V.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, M. J.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meekhof, D. M.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, H. J.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moehring, D. L.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moi, L.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Myatt, C. J.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oates, C. W.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omukai, R.

Peters, A.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pritchard, D. E.

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quint, W.

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raussendorf, R.

L.-M. Duan and R. Raussendorf, "Efficient quantum computation with probabilistic quantum gates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, N.

N. Rosen and C. Zener, "Double Stern-Gerlach experiment and related collision phenomena," Phys. Rev. A 40, 502-507 (1932).

Rowe, M. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sackett, C. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, T. D.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A.

T. Hansch and A. Schawlow, "Cooling of gases by laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 13, 68-71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schmand, J.

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, U.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schütze, R.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, "Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stößel, M.

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Strohmeier, P.

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

Turchette, Q. A.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Urabe, S.

Vallery, R. S.

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Straten, P.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer, 1999).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

Wineland, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland and W. M. Itano, "Radiation-pressure cooling of bound resonant absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521-1540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, "Proposed 1014 delta nu/nu laser fluorescence spectroscopy on Tl+ mono-ion oscillator," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 657 (1975).

Wood, C. S.

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zener, C.

N. Rosen and C. Zener, "Double Stern-Gerlach experiment and related collision phenomena," Phys. Rev. A 40, 502-507 (1932).

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

D. J. Wineland and H. Dehmelt, "Proposed 1014 delta nu/nu laser fluorescence spectroscopy on Tl+ mono-ion oscillator," Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 657 (1975).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. J. Berkeland, J. D. Miller, J. C. Bergquist, W. M. Itano, and D. J. Wineland, "Minimization of ion micromotion in a Paul trap," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5025-5033 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

T. Hansch and A. Schawlow, "Cooling of gases by laser radiation," Opt. Commun. 13, 68-71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Calabrese, V. Guidi, P. Lenisa, E. Mariotti, and L. Moi, "Transverse laser cooling of ions in a storage ring," Opt. Commun. 123, 530-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. Goepfert, I. Bloch, D. Haubrich, F. Lison, R. Schütze, R. Wynands, and D. Meschede, "Stimulated focusing and deflection of an atomic beam using picosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 56, R3354-R3357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Moehring, B. B. Blinov, D. W. Gidley, R. N. Kohn, Jr., M. J. Madsen, T. D. Sanderson, R. S. Vallery, and C. Monroe, "Precision lifetime measurement of a single trapped ion with fast laser pulses," Phys. Rev. A 73, 023431 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Blümel, C. Kappler, W. Quint, and H. Walther, "Chaos and order of laser-cooled ions in a Paul trap," Phys. Rev. A 40, 808-823 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. A. Turchette, D. Kielpinski, B. E. King, D. Leibfried, D. M. Meekhof, C. J. Myatt, M. A. Rowe, C. A. Sackett, C. S. Wood, W. M. Itano, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, "Heating of trapped ions from the quantum ground state," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063418 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Wineland and W. M. Itano, "Radiation-pressure cooling of bound resonant absorbers," Phys. Rev. A 20, 1521-1540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano and D. J. Wineland, "Laser cooling of ions stored in harmonic and Penning traps," Phys. Rev. A 25, 35 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Rosen and C. Zener, "Double Stern-Gerlach experiment and related collision phenomena," Phys. Rev. A 40, 502-507 (1932).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

L.-M. Duan and R. Raussendorf, "Efficient quantum computation with probabilistic quantum gates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 080503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Simon and W. T. M. Irvine, "Robust long-distance entanglement and a loophole-free Bell test with ions and photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 110405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhu, C. W. Oates, and J. L. Hall, "Continuous high-flux monovelocity atomic beam based on a broadband laser-cooling technique," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 46-49 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. N. Atutov, R. Calabrese, R. Grimm, V. Guidi, I. Lauer, P. Lenisa, V. Luger, E. Mariotti, L. Moi, A. Peters, U. Schramm, and M. Stößel, "`White-light' laser cooling of a fast stored ion beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2129-2132 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Ketterle, A. Martin, M. A. Joffe, and D. E. Pritchard, "Slowing and cooling atoms in isotropic laser light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2483-2486 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quantum Inf. Comput.

L.-M. Duan, B. B. Blinov, D. L. Moehring, and C. Monroe, "Scalable trapped ion quantum computation with a probabilistic ion-photon mapping," Quantum Inf. Comput. 4, 165-173 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, "Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281-324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters

P. Strohmeier, A. Horn, T. Kersebom, and J. Schmand, "Na-beam cooling by a mode-locked laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 21, 215-219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. C. M. Littler, H. M. Keller, U. Gaubatz, and K. Bergmann, "Velocity control and cooling of an atomic beam using a modeless laser," Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters 18, 307-308 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

The initial narrowband laser cooling is necessary only for technical reasons and does not affect the results of the pulsed-laser temperature measurement. Once the narrowband laser is turned off, the ion quickly reaches thermal equilibrium that depends only on the pulsed laser properties.

D. Kielpinski, "Laser cooling with ultrafast pulse trains," arXiv:quant-ph/0306099 (2003).

Here, we present the analyzed temperature data for radial direction in the trap only [vertical in Fig. ]. In the axial direction [horizontal in Fig. ], the observed temperature is about 5 times lower. This suggests that our simple theoretical model does not fully describe the cooling mechanism.

H. J. Metcalf and P. van der Straten, Laser Cooling and Trapping (Springer, 1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus. (a) Frequency-quadrupled pulses from a picosecond mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser (Spectra-Physics Tsunami) are tuned to the 5 p P 1 2 2 transition in Cd + near 226.5 nm and directed onto the trapped ion. An amplified narrowband diode laser is also frequency quadrupled and tuned a few linewidths red of the 5 P P 3 2 2 transition for initial Doppler cooling of the ion. An acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to switch on and off the narrowband light. Photons emitted from the ion are collected by an f 2.1 imaging lens and directed toward a photon-counting intensified camera. (b) Schematic drawing of the linear rf trap used in the experiment, with the ion position indicated by the black dot in the middle. (c) Relevant energy levels of Cd + .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Images of a single trapped ion taken at various pulsed laser detunings δ 2 π indicated at the bottom. The pulsed laser beam direction in each image is diagonal from the lower-left corner to the upper-right corner. (b) Cross sections of the images in (a) along the vertical direction. The solid lines are Gaussian fits to the data. (c) An image of a narrowband laser-cooled ion localized to 30 nm , with its cross section and a Gaussian fit plotted in (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summary of the measurements. (a) The measured radial ion temperature is plotted against the pulsed laser detuning δ. The solid curve represents the theoretically predicted temperature [Eq. (5)]. (b) Photon scatter rate from a single, cold ion is plotted against the pulsed laser detuning. The vertical dashed line indicates the atomic resonance position, corresponding to the wavelength 226.57 nm . The solid curve is a fit to the data using s e c h 2 spectrum [Eq. (2)], indicating Δ 2 π 420 GHz and τ 1.3 ps .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F = Δ p R P exc ,
P exc = s i n 2 ( θ 2 ) s e c h 2 ( τ ( δ + k v ) 2 ) ,
F F 0 + β v ,
D = 1 3 ( 2 E r ) R P exc ,
T = 3 τ k B 1 t a n h ( τ δ 2 ) ,

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