Abstract

We have carried out studies of photoinduced diffraction in a homeotropically aligned liquid-crystal cell on indium tin oxide with no alignment layer deposited between the electrodes and the liquid crystal. We have observed diffractive components from both persistent hidden gratings and transient gratings formed in the presence of a dc electric field and two coherent pump beams. Our experiments suggest that these persistent hidden gratings are due to a light-induced modulation of the surface charge of adsorbed species that is hidden by diffusion of bulk charge to screen the surface charge in the absence of an applied field. The applied field removes the screening charge, revealing the hidden surface-bound charge modulation. This persistent hidden grating can be manipulated by the application of light and/or a dc electric field. Dynamics and other properties are studied and described.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electroconductivity and photorefraction in nematic," JETP Lett. 59, 142-146 (1994).
  2. G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S.-H. Chen and Y. Shen, "Observation of self-starting phase-conjugate oscillation in a planar nematic liquid-crystal cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1281-1283 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, Min-Yi Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, "Surface-activated photorefractivity and electro-optic phenomena in liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1912-1917 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, A. Miniewicz, and M. Zagorska, "Observation of high gain in liquid-crystal panel with photoconducting polymeric layers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6871-6877 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh., "Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 10, 482-487 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  14. J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparone, "Surface-induced photorefractive-like effect in pure liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168-170 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4863-4869 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. S. Slussarenko, "Photorefractive effect in pure nematic liquid crystal," Europhys. Lett. 56, 672-675 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Real-time holograms in liquid crystals on photoconductive polymer surfaces," Opt. Commun. 147, 237-241 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2004

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparone, "Surface-induced photorefractive-like effect in pure liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4863-4869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Lee, H.-Y. Chen, and S.-L. Yeh., "Surface-sustained permanent gratings in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes," Opt. Express 10, 482-487 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Slussarenko, "Photorefractive effect in pure nematic liquid crystal," Europhys. Lett. 56, 672-675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, Min-Yi Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, A. Miniewicz, and M. Zagorska, "Observation of high gain in liquid-crystal panel with photoconducting polymeric layers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6871-6877 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Real-time holograms in liquid crystals on photoconductive polymer surfaces," Opt. Commun. 147, 237-241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, "Surface-activated photorefractivity and electro-optic phenomena in liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1912-1917 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Chen and Y. Shen, "Observation of self-starting phase-conjugate oscillation in a planar nematic liquid-crystal cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1281-1283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electroconductivity and photorefraction in nematic," JETP Lett. 59, 142-146 (1994).

Bartkiewicz, S.

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, A. Miniewicz, and M. Zagorska, "Observation of high gain in liquid-crystal panel with photoconducting polymeric layers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6871-6877 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boichuk, V.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

Chen, P.

Chen, S.-H.

S.-H. Chen and Y. Shen, "Observation of self-starting phase-conjugate oscillation in a planar nematic liquid-crystal cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1281-1283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cipparone, G.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparone, "Surface-induced photorefractive-like effect in pure liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4863-4869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dyadyusha, A.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

Gunter, P.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, A. Miniewicz, and M. Zagorska, "Observation of high gain in liquid-crystal panel with photoconducting polymeric layers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6871-6877 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Real-time holograms in liquid crystals on photoconductive polymer surfaces," Opt. Commun. 147, 237-241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, Min-Yi Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, "Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 22, 1229-1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuchejev, S.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Mazzulla, A.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miniewicz, A.

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bartkiewicz, F. Kajzar, A. Miniewicz, and M. Zagorska, "Observation of high gain in liquid-crystal panel with photoconducting polymeric layers," Appl. Opt. 37, 6871-6877 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Real-time holograms in liquid crystals on photoconductive polymer surfaces," Opt. Commun. 147, 237-241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostroverkhov, V.

Pagliusi, P.

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparone, "Surface-induced photorefractive-like effect in pure liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4863-4869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Parka, J.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reshetnyak, V.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Yu.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electroconductivity and photorefraction in nematic," JETP Lett. 59, 142-146 (1994).

Shen, Y.

S.-H. Chen and Y. Shen, "Observation of self-starting phase-conjugate oscillation in a planar nematic liquid-crystal cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1281-1283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

Shih, Min-Yi

Shzyjanovskaya, I.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, V. Ostroverkhov, K. D. Singer, V. Reshetnyak, and Yu. Reznikov, "Electrically controlled surface diffraction gratings in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 25, 414-416 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, Min-Yi Shih, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, "Optically induced space-charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 253-255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S. S.

S. S. Slussarenko, "Photorefractive effect in pure nematic liquid crystal," Europhys. Lett. 56, 672-675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electroconductivity and photorefraction in nematic," JETP Lett. 59, 142-146 (1994).

Tabiryan, N. V.

Umeton, C.

Vanhanen, J.

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

Wood, W. V.

Yeh., S.-L.

Zagorska, M.

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S.-H. Chen and Y. Shen, "Observation of self-starting phase-conjugate oscillation in a planar nematic liquid-crystal cell," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1281-1283 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparone, "Surface-induced photorefractive-like effect in pure liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 168-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162-1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, S. Bartkiewicz, and A. Miniewicz, "Optical amplification with high gain in hybrid-polymer-liquid-crystal structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2924-2226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, "Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording," Chem. Phys. 245, 429-436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett.

S. S. Slussarenko, "Photorefractive effect in pure nematic liquid crystal," Europhys. Lett. 56, 672-675 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. C. Khoo, "Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525-534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Zhang, G. Montemezzani, and P. Gunter, "Orientational photorefractive effect in nematic liquid crystal with externally applied fields," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1709-1717 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 4863-4869 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Boichuk, S. Kuchejev, J. Parka, V. Reshetnyak, Yu. Reznikov, I. Shzyjanovskaya, K. D. Singer, and S. Slussarenko, "Surface-mediated light-controlled Friedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal cell," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5963-5967 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Kaczmarek, A. Dyadyusha, S. Slussarenko, and I. C. Khoo, "The role of surface charge field in two-beam coupling in liquid crystal cells with photoconducting polymer layers," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 2616-2623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, "Photoinduced electroconductivity and photorefraction in nematic," JETP Lett. 59, 142-146 (1994).

Opt. Commun.

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, "Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Commun. 149, 89-95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, "Real-time holograms in liquid crystals on photoconductive polymer surfaces," Opt. Commun. 147, 237-241 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Org. Electron.

A. Miniewicz, K. Komorowska, J. Vanhanen, and J. Parka, "Surface-assisted optical storage in a nematic liquid crystal cell via photoinduced charge-density modulation," Org. Electron. 2, 155-163 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

P. Pagliusi and G. Cipparrone, "Photorefractive effect due to a photoinduced surface-charge modulation in undoped liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 061708 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the grating recording on the prior application of dc field ( I 100 mW cm 2 , U dc = 2.5 V ) .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording of the grating without a dc field and the development of the hidden grating following application of a dc field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamics of the grating recording and relaxation. The intensities of the beams are I 1 = I 2 50 mW cm 2 . The dependence of the voltage applied to the cell on time is depicted in the top plot. Regions 1, 3, and 5 have two laser beams applied; region 2 has one beam applied; region 4 has no light applied.

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