Abstract

Numerical simulations of recombination gain in the LiIII transition to ground state (21 at 13.5nm) are presented. The plasma simulated is a mixture of Li and H ions, and the space–time-dependent gain coefficient is calculated for different mixing ratios and different pumping beam parameters. The numerical model includes the initial optical field ionization of the plasma by an intense 100fs laser pulse, taking into account residual heating, particle collisions, and spatial effects. Gain is then calculated during the process of recombination as the plasma expands and cools. We show that the addition of hydrogen to the plasma can lead to higher gain with a less restrictive range of experimental parameters. We analyze the effects of the addition of hydrogen on the gain and point to the optimal plasma and pump parameters to produce gain.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, "Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography," Appl. Opt. 32, 6952-6960 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, "Design of multilayer extreme-ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity," Appl. Opt. 39, 2189-2197 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Pert, "X-ray lasers pumped by ultra-short light pulses," J. Phys. IV 11, 181-187 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. H. Burnett and P. B. Corkum, "Cold-plasma production for recombination extreme-ultraviolet lasers by optical-field-induced ionization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1195-1199 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Ditmire, "Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6735-6740 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Pert, "Electron distributions generated by tunnelling ionization during gas breakdown by high intensity laser radiation," J. Phys. B 32, 27-52 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. Pert, "The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionization using a Fokker-Planck method," J. Phys. B 34, 881-908 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Spence and S. Hooker, "Simulations of recombination lasing in Ar7+ driven by optical field ionization in a capillary discharge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 249, 501-513 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. I. Geltner, Y. Ping, and S. Suckewer, "Guiding and transmission of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in discharge-ablated LiF microcapillaries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 616-620 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Takizuka and H. Abe, "A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code," J. Comput. Phys. 25, 205-219 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).
  20. S. Brunner and E. Valeo, "Simulations of electron transport in laser hot spots," Phys. Plasmas 9, 923-936 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. M. Epperlein, "Fokker-Planck modeling of electron-transport in laser-produced plasmas," Laser Part. Beams 12, 257-272 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Itikawa, "Annotated bibliography on electron collisions with atomic positive ions: excitation and ionization, 1990-1994," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63, 315-351 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Lotz, "Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium," Z. Phys. 216, 241-247 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Shevelko, "Semiempirical formulas for dipole excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients in atoms and ions," Phys. Scr. 43, 266-269 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2005

D. Spence and S. Hooker, "Simulations of recombination lasing in Ar7+ driven by optical field ionization in a capillary discharge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 249, 501-513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

S. Brunner and E. Valeo, "Simulations of electron transport in laser hot spots," Phys. Plasmas 9, 923-936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. J. Pert, "The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionization using a Fokker-Planck method," J. Phys. B 34, 881-908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, "X-ray lasers pumped by ultra-short light pulses," J. Phys. IV 11, 181-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. Singh and J. J. M. Braat, "Design of multilayer extreme-ultraviolet mirrors for enhanced reflectivity," Appl. Opt. 39, 2189-2197 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pert, "Electron distributions generated by tunnelling ionization during gas breakdown by high intensity laser radiation," J. Phys. B 32, 27-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, "Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6735-6740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Itikawa, "Annotated bibliography on electron collisions with atomic positive ions: excitation and ionization, 1990-1994," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63, 315-351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).

1994

E. M. Epperlein, "Fokker-Planck modeling of electron-transport in laser-produced plasmas," Laser Part. Beams 12, 257-272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, and S. P. Vernon, "Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography," Appl. Opt. 32, 6952-6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

V. Shevelko, "Semiempirical formulas for dipole excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients in atoms and ions," Phys. Scr. 43, 266-269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1977

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, "A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code," J. Comput. Phys. 25, 205-219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Lotz, "Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium," Z. Phys. 216, 241-247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, "A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code," J. Comput. Phys. 25, 205-219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Antonsen, T. M.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernshtam, V. A.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braat, J. J. M.

Bray, I.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, S.

S. Brunner and E. Valeo, "Simulations of electron transport in laser hot spots," Phys. Plasmas 9, 923-936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

Burris, H. R.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, "Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6735-6740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, Y.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epperlein, E. M.

E. M. Epperlein, "Fokker-Planck modeling of electron-transport in laser-produced plasmas," Laser Part. Beams 12, 257-272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, V. I.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geltner, I.

Goldgirsh, A.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Golten, H.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goltsov, A.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grout, M. J.

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, S. B.

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).

Hooker, S.

D. Spence and S. Hooker, "Simulations of recombination lasing in Ar7+ driven by optical field ionization in a capillary discharge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 249, 501-513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R. F.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itikawa, Y.

Y. Itikawa, "Annotated bibliography on electron collisions with atomic positive ions: excitation and ionization, 1990-1994," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63, 315-351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janulewicz, K. A.

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).

Kaganovich, D.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korobkin, D. V.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubodera, S.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lotz, W.

W. Lotz, "Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium," Z. Phys. 216, 241-247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Maron, Y.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, C. I.

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peñano, J. R.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pert, G.

G. Pert, "Electron distributions generated by tunnelling ionization during gas breakdown by high intensity laser radiation," J. Phys. B 32, 27-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

G. J. Pert, "The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionization using a Fokker-Planck method," J. Phys. B 34, 881-908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, "X-ray lasers pumped by ultra-short light pulses," J. Phys. IV 11, 181-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).

Ping, Y.

Ralchenko, Y. V.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

Shevelko, V.

Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Shevelko, "Semiempirical formulas for dipole excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients in atoms and ions," Phys. Scr. 43, 266-269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

Spence, D.

D. Spence and S. Hooker, "Simulations of recombination lasing in Ar7+ driven by optical field ionization in a capillary discharge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 249, 501-513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sprangle, P.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

Suckewer, S.

Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Geltner, Y. Ping, and S. Suckewer, "Guiding and transmission of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses in discharge-ablated LiF microcapillaries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 616-620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takizuka, T.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, "A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code," J. Comput. Phys. 25, 205-219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, A.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toyoda, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vainshtein, L. A.

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Valeo, E.

Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Brunner and E. Valeo, "Simulations of electron transport in laser hot spots," Phys. Plasmas 9, 923-936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, S. P.

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

Y. Itikawa, "Annotated bibliography on electron collisions with atomic positive ions: excitation and ionization, 1990-1994," At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 63, 315-351 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Hydrodynamics perspective on OFI-plasma X-ray lasers," Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 29, 156-160 (1996).

J. Comput. Phys.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, "A binary collision model for plasma simulation with a particle code," J. Comput. Phys. 25, 205-219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

G. Pert, "Electron distributions generated by tunnelling ionization during gas breakdown by high intensity laser radiation," J. Phys. B 32, 27-52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Pert, "The calculation of the electron distribution function following tunnelling ionization using a Fokker-Planck method," J. Phys. B 34, 881-908 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, S. Li, and V. Shevelko, "Electron-impact ionization of atoms and ions from hydrogenic nl states," J. Phys. B 31, 1349-1353 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. IV

G. J. Pert, "X-ray lasers pumped by ultra-short light pulses," J. Phys. IV 11, 181-187 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Part. Beams

E. M. Epperlein, "Fokker-Planck modeling of electron-transport in laser-produced plasmas," Laser Part. Beams 12, 257-272 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. J. Grout, K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Optical-field induced gas mixture breakdown for recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 141, 213-220 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Spence and S. Hooker, "Simulations of recombination lasing in Ar7+ driven by optical field ionization in a capillary discharge waveguide," Opt. Commun. 249, 501-513 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Janulewicz, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, "Modelling of OFI-plasma recombination X-ray lasers," Opt. Commun. 140, 165-178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas

S. Brunner and E. Valeo, "Simulations of electron transport in laser hot spots," Phys. Plasmas 9, 923-936 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

V. I. Fisher, Y. V. Ralchenko, V. A. Bernshtam, A. Goldgirsh, Y. Maron, L. A. Vainshtein, I. Bray, and H. Golten, "Electron-impact-excitation cross sections of hydrogenlike ions," Phys. Rev. A 55, 329-334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

D. Kaganovich, A. Ting, C. I. Moore, A. Zigler, H. R. Burris, Y. Ehrlich, R. Hubbard, and P. Sprangle, "High efficiency guiding of terawatt subpicosecond laser pulses in a capillary discharge plasma channel," Phys. Rev. E 59, R4769-R4772 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, S. Suckewer, and E. Valeo, "Numerical investigation of recombination gain in the Li III transition to ground state," Phys. Rev. E 69, 046409 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, "Simulations of heating and electron energy distributions in optical field ionized plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 54, 6735-6740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, "Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-alpha transition by optical-field-induced ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774-3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Korobkin, C. H. Nam, S. Suckewer, and A. Goltsov, "Demonstration of soft x-ray lasing to ground state in Li III," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5206-5209 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, J. R. Peñano, R. F. Hubbard, A. Ting, A. Zigler, and T. M. Antonsen, "Stable laser-pulse propagation in plasma channels for GeV electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5110-5113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr.

V. Shevelko, "Semiempirical formulas for dipole excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients in atoms and ions," Phys. Scr. 43, 266-269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. J. Rocca, "Table-top soft x-ray lasers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3799-3827 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

W. Lotz, "Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium," Z. Phys. 216, 241-247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Accumulative density and average energy for a (a) Maxwellian EDF and (b) calculated OFI-EDF. The calculation was done with OFI beam parameters λ = 400 nm and d = 30 μ m and Li-ion density of n Li = 10 19 cm 3 (for the pure lithium case).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average energies of the electrons ionized from H and the electrons ionized from Li separately. Both figures were calculated with an ion-density ratio of n H ( n H + n Li ) = 0.9 and with an OFI beam diameter of 15 μ m . The OFI laser wavelength was (a) λ = 400 nm and (b) λ = 800 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical result from the model, gain coefficient is given in inverse centimeters. The calculation was done for a beam diameter of 10 μ m and an ion-density ratio of n Li ( n H + n Li ) = 0.1 . (a) The populations of levels 1 and 2 ( n 1 and n 2 ; n 2 is divided by 4 to account for the degeneracy ratio between levels 1 and 2) and the gain coefficient versus time for r = 0 . (b) Gain coefficient versus time and radius.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain (in inverse centimeters) dependence on beam diameter and the ion-density ratio n Li ( n H + n Li ) , for OFI laser wavelength of (a) λ = 400 nm and (b) λ = 800 nm .

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f e ( η ; E , I p , ω ) = a η ( 1 η ) exp [ 2 3 ( I p I h ) 3 2 E 0 E 1 η ] ,
n acc ( E ) = 1 n e 0 E f ( E ) d E ,
E acc ( E ) = 1 E e 0 E E f ( E ) d E .
E L = E p × exp [ ( 2 x d ) 2 ] × exp [ ( 2 t τ ) 2 ] × sin ( ω t ) x ̂ ,
d n k z + d t = n e m k β m k z + n m z + n e n k z + m k β k m z + + m > k A m k z + n m z + n k z + m < k A k m z + + δ k , 1 n e m S m ( z 1 ) + n m ( z 1 ) + n e S k z + n k z + + α k z + n e n 1 ( z + 1 ) + δ k , 1 n e n k z + m α m ( z 1 ) + ,

Metrics