Abstract

We report the transmission and reflection characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) left-handed metamaterial (LHM). A well-defined left-handed (LH) transmission band with a peak value of 9.9dB is obtained at frequencies where both effective permittivity and permeability are negative. A very sharp dip (38dB) at the reflection spectrum due to impedance matching at the surface of a 2D LHM is observed. Gaussian beam shifting experiments are performed to study the LH properties of a LHM structure. The structure has a negative refraction of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. The negative refractive index values obtained for four different incident angles are in good agreement.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. W. Ziolkowski, "Design, fabrication and testing of double negative metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 1516-1529 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski, "Design, fabrication and testing of double negative metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 1516-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Alici, K. B.

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, Koray

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, M.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. B.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, I. L.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, Ertugrul

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forester, D. W.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopolou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foteinopoulou, S.

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Greegor, R. B.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houck, A. A.

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koltenbah, B. E.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Loschialpo, P. F.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monzon, C.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, Ekmel

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parazzoli, C. G.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rachford, F. J.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. L.

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, M. Kafesaki, L. Zhang, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Experimental observation of true left-handed transmission peaks in metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 29, 2623-2625 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, Costas M.

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanielian, M.

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Valanju, A. P.

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valanju, P. M.

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walser, R. M.

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.-I.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

R. W. Ziolkowski, "Design, fabrication and testing of double negative metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 1516-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Aydin, K. Guven, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Observation of negative refraction and negative phase velocity in left-handed metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 124102-1-124102-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Microwave transmission through a two-dimensional, isotropic, left-handed metamaterial," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 489-491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

E. Ozbay, K. Aydin, E. Cubukcu, and M. Bayindir, "Transmission and reflection properties of composite double negative metamaterials in free space," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 2592-2595 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Ziolkowski, "Design, fabrication and testing of double negative metamaterials," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 1516-1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

Ertugrul Cubukcu, Koray Aydin, Ekmel Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic waves: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature (London) 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Guven, K. Aydin, K. B. Alici, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Spectral negative refraction and focusing analysis of a two-dimensional left-handed photonic crystal lens," Phys. Rev. B 70, 205125-1-205125-5 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. F. Loschialpo, D. W. Forester, D. L. Smith, F. J. Rachford, and C. Monzon, "Optical properties of an ideal homogeneous casual left-handed metamaterial slab," Phys. Rev. E 70, 036605-1-036605-1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107402-1-107402-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, S. Foteinopolou, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, "Subwavelength resolution in a two-dimensional photonic crystal based superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401-1-207401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Valanju, R. M. Walser, and A. P. Valanju, "Wave refraction in negative-index media: always positive and very inhomogeneous," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 187401-1-187401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Pacheco, Jr., T. M. Grzegorczyk, B.-I. Wu, Y. Zhang, and J. A. Kong, "Power propagation in homogeneous isotropic frequency-dispersive left-handed media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257401-1-257401-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Parazzoli, R. B. Greegor, K. Li, B. E. Koltenbah, and M. Tanielian, "Experimental verification and simulation of negative index of refraction using Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107401-1-107401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Houck, J. B. Brock, and I. L. Chuang, "Experimental observations of a left-handed material that obeys Snell's law," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 137401-1-137401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305, 788-792 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of 2D LHM. Shaded parts represent the unit cell of the LHM structure. (b) 2D LHM structure used for transmission, reflection, and refraction experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured (a) transmission (solid curve), and (b) reflection (dashed curve) spectra of a 2D LHM structure between 3.0 5.5 GHz .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of the experimental setup for verifying a negative refractive index. An electromagnetic wave is transmitted to the first interface by a microwave horn antenna with an angle θ i . The EM wave is refracted with an angle θ r through a slab of a LHM structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transmission spectrum as a function of frequency and the lateral position at the LHM–air interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refraction spectrum at 3.86 GHz . The center of the Gaussian beam is shifted to the left, which means the refractive index is negative at this frequency.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive Index Values for Different Incident Angles

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